John W. P. Ost, James Allison and William B. Vance
January 1, 1969
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A Laboratory Introduction to Psychology was written to acquaint the student with the concepts and methods of laboratory science as they apply to psychology. It is assumed that the laboratory course will follow or accompany a comprehensive course in introductory psychology which emphasizes scientific topics. The experiments have been related to journal articles and to sections of several popular textbooks so that students and instructors will have ready access to introductory material. This manual is limited to standard topics of experimental psychology, but includes some experiments that are relatively new. The topics discussed are grouped into in three main categories: Animal Behavior, Sensory Processes, and Human Behavior. Within each of these sections, the experiments are somewhat connected in shorter series. The Animal Behavior studies include one series consisting of conditioning, extinction, discrimination, and secondary reinforcement, and a second series on schedules of reinforcement and motivation. The experiments on Sensory Processes include some threshold measurements, and also a series of studies on perceived magnitude, adaptation level, and illusions. The experiments on Human Behavior include a series on learning and transfer, on short-term memory, and on two-person interactions.
Pergamon General Psychology Series: A New Morality from Science: Beyondism focuses on the role of science in establishing ethical values. The publication first elaborates on three gateways to the understanding of life, origins of uncertainty and confusion, and basic logic of beyondism. Discussions focus on moral laws within groups and the fallacy of universalization; planned bio-cultural diversity of groups in the great experiment; absence of institutional mechanisms specifically to create progress; social construction without positive value construction; and humanity and the ever-open gateway of religion. The manuscript then examines moral directives derivable from the beyondist goal and psychological problems in human adjustment to the new ethics. The book takes a look at the departure of beyondism from traditional and current ethical systems; impact of evolutionary values on current socio-political practices; and integration of the emotional life with progressive institutions. Topics include mutual services of beyondism and the arts, setting of the research institutes for the world federation and free enquirers, community goals in population size, class, and internal diversity, and the reconstruction needed for a scientifically rational politics. The manuscript is a dependable reference for researchers interested in the role of science in establishing ethical values.
A Practical Guide to Finding Treatments That Work for People with Autism provides a logical, culturally sensitive, and values-based resource to aid practitioners in making informed decisions on the most effective treatment for any given client at any given time. By providing multiple illustrative examples, practitioners will learn to use their professional judgment to integrate the best available evidence with client values and context. This will increase the efficacy of autism treatments, with the goal of producing meaningful gains across a range of skills.
The present work is a continuation of the authors' acclaimed multi-volume APractical Logic of Cognitive Systems. After having investigated the notion ofrelevance in their previous volume, Gabbay and Woods now turn to abduction. Inthis highly original approach, abduction is construed as ignorance-preservinginference, in which conjecture plays a pivotal role. Abduction is a response to acognitive target that cannot be hit on the basis of what the agent currently knows.The abducer selects a hypothesis which were it true would enable the reasoner to attain his target. He concludes from this fact that the hypothesis may be conjectured. In allowing conjecture to stand in for the knowledge he fails to have, the abducer reveals himself to be a satisficer, since an abductive solution is not a solution from knowledge. Key to the authors' analysis is the requirement that a conjectured proposition is not just what a reasoner might allow himself to assume, but a proposition he must defeasibly release as a premiss for further inferences in the domain of enquiry in which the original abduction problem has arisen.The coverage of the book is extensive, from the philosophy of science tocomputer science and AI, from diagnostics to the law, from historical explanation to linguistic interpretation. One of the volume's strongest contributions is its exploration of the abductive character of criminal trials, with special attention given to the standard of proof beyond a reasonable doubt.Underlying their analysis of abductive reasoning is the authors' conception ofpractical agency. In this approach, practical agency is dominantly a matter of thecomparative modesty of an agent's cognitive agendas, together with comparatively scant resources available for their advancement. Seen in these ways, abduction has a significantly practical character, precisely because it is a form of inference that satisfices rather than maximizes its response to the agent's cognitive target.The Reach of Abduction will be necessary reading for researchers, graduatestudents and senior undergraduates in logic, computer science, AI, belief dynamics, argumentation theory, cognitive psychology and neuroscience, linguistics, forensic science, legal reasoning and related areas.Key features:- Reach of Abduction is fully integrated with a background logic of cognitive systems.- The most extensive coverage compared to competitive works.- Demonstrates not only that abduction is a form of ignorance preservinginference but that it is a mode of inference that is wholly rational.- Demonstrates the satisficing rather than maximizing character ofabduction.- The development of formal models of abduction is considerably more extensive than one finds in existing literature. It is an especially impressive amalgam of sophisticatedconceptual analysis and extensive logical modelling.
With the rapidly growing demand for mental health care there is a need for efficient and effective psychological treatment options. Low Intensity Psychological Therapy has become well established in the England Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme as a beneficial and versatile treatment option for mild-moderate symptoms of depression and anxiety. A Pragmatic Guide to Low Intensity Psychological Therapy: Care in High Volume, provides a guide to Low Intensity Psychological Therapy from the perspective of the Low Intensity Practitioner. This book describes the Low Intensity role as part of a multi-disciplinary approach to psychological care. The authors use a series of case vignettes, personal experience and current literature to help navigate the context of the role and its potential for ethical and safe expansion.
Justin B Leaf, Joseph H Cihon, Julia L Ferguson + 5 more
September 20, 2023
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Approximately 1 in 36 children in the United States will be diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and that number is expected to rise according to the CDC. Interventions based on the science of applied behavior analysis (ABA) are one of the most common interventions for autistic individuals. One of the biggest problems facing the field of ABA-based interventions is ineffectiveness of intervention approaches due to the rigid application of ABA-based interventions. Progressive Approach to Applied Behavior Analysis provides practicing behavior analysts (e.g., BCBAs, BCaBAs, RBTs) and other clinicians with an in-depth introduction to a Progressive Approach to ABA and how it applies to common teaching methods within ABA-based interventions. This includes research and guidelines for implementing a Progressive Approach to ABA, potentially increasing the likelihood of meaningful outcomes for individuals diagnosed with ASD. This will become the guide for practitioners on how to use clinical judgment and in-the-moment assessment across various procedures.
The pre-eminent 19th century British ethicist, Henry Sidgwick once said: "All important ethical notions are also psychological, except perhaps the fundamental antitheses of 'good' and 'bad' and 'wrong', with which psychology, as it treats of what is and not of what ought to be, is not directly concerned" (quoted in T.N. Tice and T.P. Slavens, 1983). Sidgwick's statement can be interpreted to mean that psychology is relevant for ethics or that psychological knowledge contributes to the construction of an ethical reality. This interpretation serves as the basic impetus to this book, but Sidgwick's statement is also analyzed in detail to demonstrate why a current exposition on the relevance of psychology for ethical reality is necessary and germane.
A Students' Guide to Piaget is a students' guide to the work of Jean Piaget, one of the most influential thinkers in contemporary psychology. It discusses Piaget's multifarious epistemological interests, his developmental psychology, and his solutions to the problems of mathematical epistemology. Piaget's contributions to education, as well as his early work on children's language and cognitive development, are also examined. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an overview of the major problem that confronts students when they first encounter Piaget's work: why he has done it. Piaget's attempt to answer some very important questions in the branch of philosophy called epistemology is also considered. The next chapter introduces the reader to the basic concepts of Piaget's psychology and his concern with the development of intelligence. The discussion then turns to his views about the sensorimotor phase, pre-operational thinking, and operational thinking in children. A brief summary of developmental periods in Piaget's psychology is presented, and his solutions to the problems of mathematical epistemology are outlined. The remaining chapters focus on Piaget's preoccupation with genetic epistemology, his contributions to education, and his work on children's language and cognitive development. The final chapter analyzes some of the objections that have been raised or may be raised to Piaget's work. This monograph will be a useful resource for psychology students.
James C. Naylor, Robert D. Pritchard and Daniel R. Ilgen
August 28, 1980
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A Theory of Behavior in Organizations develops a theory for organizational behavior, or, more accurately, a theory of individual behavior within organizations of behavior. The book begins by discussing a series of general issues involved in the theory of behavior in organizations. It then describes the theory itself in three stages: first, the general structure of the theory; second, definition of the key variables; and third, the interrelationships between the variables. Subsequent chapters show how the theory deals specifically with such issues as roles, decision making, and motivation. The theory presented is a cognitive theory of behavior. It assumes that man is rational (or at least nonrandom) for the most part, and that as a systematic or nonrandom generator of behavior, man's actions are explained best in terms of conscious, thinking acts on the part of the individual. The theory deals with why the individual chooses certain alternative courses of action in preference to others, and thus it might properly be called a theory of choice behavior. Whereas the emphasis is on the cognitive aspects of behavior, considerable attention has been devoted to external, noncognitive variables in the system that play meaningful roles in the determination of individual behavior.
Over a half-century of research has documented the fact that people of different ages perform at different levels on a variety of tests of cognitive functioning, and yet there are still no comprehensive theories to account for these phenomena. A Theory of Cognitive Aging is intended to begin intellectual discussion in this area by identifying major issues of controversy, and proposing a particular theoretical interpretation based on the notion that the rate of processing information slows down with increased age. Although still quite preliminary, the theoretical perspective is demonstrated to provide a plausible account for age-related differences in functioning on measures of memory, spatial ability and reasoning. The book has four aims: - To advocate a more explicitly theoretical approach to research in the area of cognitive aging. - To outline three important dimensions along which it is argued that any theory of cognitive aging phenomena must take a position. - To evaluate empirical evidence relevant to specific positions along those dimensions. - To summarize the major concepts of the current theory, and to describe its application to selected findings in the research literature.