Learning and Instruction is an international, multi-disciplinary, peer-refereed journal. The journal provides a platform for the publication of the most advanced scientific research in the areas of learning, instruction, teaching and development. It welcomes original empirical investigations. The papers may represent a variety of theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches. They may refer to any age level, from infants to adults, and to a diversity of learning and instructional settings, from laboratory experiments to field studies, and from large-scale quantitative studies to qualitative case studies. The major criteria in the evaluation process concern the significance of the contribution to its area of scholarship, and the quality of the methodology. Studies may contribute to the general areas of learning and instruction or to specific domains or disciplines or school subjects.