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# Sustainable Design Through Process Integration

## Fundamentals and Applications to Industrial Pollution Prevention, Resource Conservation, and Profitability Enhancement

- 1st Edition - September 19, 2011
- Author: Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi
- Language: English
- Paperback ISBN:9 7 8 - 1 - 8 5 6 1 7 - 7 4 4 - 3
- eBook ISBN:9 7 8 - 0 - 0 8 - 0 9 6 1 6 1 - 3

This timely book provides authoritative, comprehensive, and easy-to-follow coverage of the fundamental concepts and practical techniques on the use of process integration to ma… Read more

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## Institutional subscription on ScienceDirect

Request a sales quoteThis timely book provides authoritative, comprehensive, and easy-to-follow coverage of the fundamental concepts and practical techniques on the use of process integration to maximize the efficiency and sustainability of industrial processes.

Over the past three decades, significant advances have been made in treating, designing, and operating chemical processes as integrated systems. Whether you are a process engineer, an industrial decision maker, or a researcher, this book will be an indispensable resource tool for systematically enhancing process performance and developing novel and sustainable process designs. The book is also ideal for use as a text in an upper level undergraduate or an introductory graduate course on process design and sustainability.

This ground breaking reference enhances and reconciles various process and sustainability objectives, such as cost effectiveness, yield improvement, energy efficiency, and pollution prevention. The detailed tools and applications within are written by one of the world’s foremost process integration and design experts and will save you time and money.

- Contains state-of-the-art process integration approaches and applications including graphical, algebraic, and mathematical techniques
- Covers applications that include process economics, targeting for conservation of mass and energy, synthesis of innovative processes, retrofitting of existing systems, design and assessment of renewable energy systems, and in-process pollution prevention
- Presents fundamentals and step-by-step procedures that can be applied to the design and optimization of new processes as well the retrofitting and operation of existing processes, as well as including numerous examples and case studies for a broad array of industrial systems and processes

- Dedication
- Preface
- Chapter 1. Introduction to Sustainability, Sustainable Design, and Process Integration
- Publisher Summary
- What is Sustainability?
- What is Sustainable Design Through Process Integration
- Motivating Examples on the Generation and Integration of Sustainable Design Alternatives
- Structure and Learning Outcomes of the Book
- References

- Chapter 2. Overview of Process Economics
- Publisher Summary
- Cost Types and Estimation
- Depreciation
- Break-Even Analysis
- Time-Value of Money
- Profitabilty Analysis
- Homework Problems
- References

- Chapter 3. Benchmarking Process Performance Through Overall Mass Targeting
- Publisher Summary
- Stoichiometry-Based Targeting
- Mass-Integration Targeting
- Mass Integration Strategies for Attaining the Targets
- Homework problems
- References

- Chapter 4. Direct-Recycle Networks: A Graphical Approach
- Publisher Summary
- Problem Statement for the Design of Direct-Recycle Networks
- Selection of Sources, Sinks, and Recycle Routes
- Direct-Recycle Targets through Material Recycle Pinch Diagram
- Design Rules from the Material Recycle Pinch Diagram
- Extension to the Case of Impure Fresh
- Insights for Process Modifications
- The Source-Sink Mapping Diagram for Matching Sources and Sinks
- Multicomponent Source-Sink Mapping Diagram
- Homework problems
- References

- Chapter 5. Synthesis of Mass-Exchange Networks: A Graphical Approach
- Publisher Summary
- Mass-Exchange Network Synthesis Task
- The MEN-Targeting Approach
- The Corresponding Composition Scales
- The Mass-Exchange Pinch Diagram
- Constructing Pinch Diagrams without Process MSAs
- Construction of the Men Configuratiovn with Minimum Number of Exchangers
- Trading Off Fixed Cost versus Operating Cost
- Homework Problems
- Nomenclature
- References

- Chapter 6. Combining Mass-Integration Strategies
- Publisher Summary
- Process Representation from a Mass-Integration Species Perspective
- Homework Problems
- References

- Chapter 7. Heat Integration
- Publisher Summary
- HEN-Synthesis Problem Statement
- Minimum Utility Targets via the Thermal Pinch Diagram
- Minimum Utility Targets using the Algebraic Cascade Diagram
- Screening of Multiple Utilities Using the Grand Composite Representation
- Stream Matching and the Synthesis of Heat-Exchange Networks
- Homework Problems
- Nomenclature
- References

- Chapter 8. Integration of Combined Heat and Power Systems
- Publisher Summary
- Heat Engines
- Steam Turbines and Power Plants
- Placement of Heat Engines and Integration with Thermal Pinch Analysis
- Heat Pumps
- Closed-Cycle Vapor-Compression Heat Pumps using a Separate Working Fluid (Refrigerant)
- Vapor-Compression Heat Pumps and Thermal Pinch Diagram
- Open-Cycle Mechanical Vapor Recompression using a Process Stream as the Working Fluid
- Absorption Refrigeration Cycles
- Cogeneration Targeting
- Additional Readings
- Homework Problems
- References

- Chapter 9. Property Integration
- Publisher Summary
- Property-Based Material Recycle/Reuse Pinch Diagram
- Process Modification Based on Property-Based Pinch Diagram
- Clustering Techniques for Multiple Properties
- Cluster-Based Source-Sink Mapping Diagram for Property-Based Recycle and Interception
- Property-Based Design Rules for Recycle and Interception
- Dealing with Multiplicity of Cluster-to-Property Mapping
- Relationship Between Clusters and Mass Fractions
- Additional Readings
- Homework Problems
- Nomenclature
- Subscripts
- Superscripts
- Greek Letters
- References

- Chapter 10. Direct-Recycle Networks: An Algebraic Approach
- Publisher Summary
- Problem Statement
- Algebraic Targeting Approach
- Algebraic Targeting Procedure
- Case Study: Targeting for Water Usage and Discharge in a Formic Acid Plant
- Solution
- Homework Problems
- Nomenclature
- References

- Chapter 11. Synthesis of Mass-Exchange Networks: An Algebraic Approach
- Publisher Summary
- The Composition-Interval Diagram
- Table of Exchangeable Loads
- Mass-Exchange Cascade Diagram
- Homework Problems
- Nomenclature
- References

- Chapter 12. Synthesis of Heat-Induced Separation Networks for Condensation of Volatile Organic Compounds
- Publisher Summary
- Problem Statement
- System Configuration
- Integration of Mass and Heat Objectives
- Design Approach
- Special Case: Dilute Waste Streams
- Effect of Pressure
- Homework Problems
- Nomenclature
- Greek Letters
- References

- Chapter 13. Design of Membrane-Separation Systems
- Publisher Summary
- Classification of Membrane Separations
- Reverse-Osmosis Systems
- Designing Systems of Multiple Reverse-Osmosis Modules
- Homework Problems
- Symbols
- Greek letters
- Subscripts
- Superscripts
- References

- Chapter 14. Overview of Optimization
- Publisher Summary
- What Is Mathematical Programming?
- How to Formulate an Optimization Model?
- Using the Software LINGO to Solve Optimization Problems
- Interpreting Dual Prices in the Results of a Lingo Solution
- A Brief Introduction to Sets, Convex Analysis, and Symbols Used in Optimization
- The Use of 0–1 Binary-Integer Variables
- Enumerating Multiple Solutions Using Integer Cuts
- Modeling Disjunctions and Discontinuous Functions with Binary Integer Variables
- Using Set Formulations in Lingo
- Homework Problems
- References

- Chapter 15. An Optimization Approach to Direct Recycle
- Publisher Summary
- Problem Statement
- Problem Representation
- Optimization Formulation
- Additional Readings
- Homework problems
- References

- Chapter 16. Synthesis of Mass-Exchange Networks: A Mathematical Programming Approach
- Publisher Summary
- Generalization of the Composition Interval Diagram
- Problem Formulation
- Optimization of Outlet Compositions
- Stream Matching and Network Synthesis
- Homework Problems
- Nomenclature
- References

- Chapter 17. Synthesis of Reactive Mass-Exchange Networks
- Publisher Summary
- Objectives of Reamen Synthesis
- Corresponding Composition Scales for Reactive Mass Exchange
- Synthesis Approach
- Homework Problems
- Nomenclature
- Greek Letters
- Special Symbol
- References

- Chapter 18. Mathematical Optimization Techniques for Mass Integration
- Publisher Summary
- Problem Statement and Challenges
- Synthesis of MSA-Induced Interception NetworkS
- Developing Strategies for Segregation, Mixing, and Direct Recycle
- Integration of Interception with Segregation, Mixing, and Recycle
- Homework Problems
- Nomenclature
- Subscripts
- Superscripts
- Greek Letters
- References

- Chapter 19. Mathematical Techniques for the Synthesis of Heat-Exchange Networks
- Publisher Summary
- Targeting for Minimum Heating and Cooling Utilities
- Stream Matching and HEN Synthesis
- Handling Scheduling and Flexibility Issues in HEN Synthesis
- Homework Problems
- Nomenclature
- Greek letter
- References

- Chapter 20. Synthesis of Combined Heat and Reactive Mass-Exchange Networks
- Publisher Summary
- Synthesis of Combined Heat and Reactive Mass-Exchange Networks
- Homework Problem
- Nomenclature
- Greek letters
- References

- Chapter 21. Design of Integrated Biorefineries
- Publisher Summary
- Conceptual Design of a Biorefinery
- Techno-Economic Assessment of a Biorefinery
- References

- Chapter 22. Macroscopic Approaches of Process Integration
- Publisher Summary
- Eco-Industrial Parks
- Material Flow Analysis and Reverse Problem Formulation for Watersheds
- Process Integration as an Enabling Tool in Environmental Impact Assessment
- Process Integration in Life Cycle Analysis
- Nomenclature
- Indices
- References

- Chapter 23. Concluding Thoughts: Launching Successful Process-Integration Initiatives and Applications
- Publisher Summary
- Commercial Applicability
- Pitfalls in Implementing Process Integration
- Starting and Sustaining PI Initiatives and Projects
- References

- Appendix I. Conversion Relationships for Concentrations and Conversion Factors for Units
- Basic relationships for Converting Concentrations
- Key Conversion Factors for Different Sets of Units

- Appendix II. Modeling of Mass-Exchange Units for Environmental Applications
- What Is a Mass Exchanger?
- Equilibrium
- Interphase Mass Transfer
- Types and Sizes of Mass Exchangers
- Minimizing Cost of Mass-Exchange Systems
- Homework Problems
- Physical data
- Stripper sizing criteria
- Cost information
- Equilibrium data
- Absorber sizing criteria
- Cost information
- References

- Index

- No. of pages: 448
- Language: English
- Edition: 1
- Published: September 19, 2011
- Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
- Paperback ISBN: 9781856177443
- eBook ISBN: 9780080961613

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### Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi

*Sustainable Design Through Process Integration*on ScienceDirect