This book gives a detailed overview of production processes and yield formation in field crops and permanent grasslands. Yield formation is discussed by the authors as a dynamic process, involving many factors at each stage. Knowledge of the optimum levels of individual yield components makes it possible to control this dynamic process. It is intended that this approach will help to point out gaps in the understanding of the production processes and indicate the direction for further research on this subject.The authors report on various aspects which are involved in yield formation, such as uptake of nutrients, root growth, water use, photosynthesis, transport, distribution and accumulation of photosynthates, etc. A separate chapter discusses the production process as seen from a genetic standpoint. It includes an analysis of phenotype and genotype with respect to production potential, also the heredity, variability of yield potential and new cultivation methods are mentioned. The main part of the book deals with the theory and practice of yield formation in cereals, maize, legumes, sugarbeet, potatoes, clovers and perennial grass stands.