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Tunneling in Rock
1st Edition - January 1, 1973
Author: Ernest Wahlstrom
9 7 8 - 0 - 4 4 4 - 6 0 1 7 4 - 2
Tunneling in Rock reviews the theory and practice of engineering geology and its application to tunneling in rocks. This book explores the history of tunneling, defines… Read more
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Tunneling in Rock reviews the theory and practice of engineering geology and its application to tunneling in rocks. This book explores the history of tunneling, defines terminologies of tunneling, and illustrates tunnels. The book discusses the petrography of unaltered rocks, such as rock minerals, fragmental rocks, igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks. The book then describes rock alteration, which may be caused by weathering. Such alterations are low-temperature alterations at moderate depths, hydrothermal alteration, deuteric alteration, pneumatolytic alteration, and other miscellaneous types of alteration. The book also discusses elementary rock mechanics, such as isotropism and anisotropism; mechanical properties of rocks; force and stress; and the fracture and fold anisotropy in rocks, including the deformation of minerals, elastic, quasi-elastic, and plastic rocks. The remaining chapters of the book focus on hydrogeology; geological investigation of proposed tunnel locations and its application to tunnel planning and design; different tunneling methods; and geological investigations during tunnel constructions. Those who are interested in geological aspects of planning and constructing tunnels will find this book valuable.
PrefaceChapter 1. About tunnels History of tunneling Some definitions Generalities about tunneling Uses of tunnels Tunnel sections Tunnel supports and lining ReferencesChapter 2. Petrography of unaltered rocks Introduction Rock minerals General statement Physical properties of minerals Petrographic methods Mineralogy of clay minerals Rock fabrics from growth of crystals Fabrics of fragmental rocks Size classification Shapes of clasts Particle orientation Stratification (bedding) Matrix and cement Igneous rocks Some shapes of igneous bodies Sedimentary rocks Metamorphic rocks ReferencesChapter 3. Rock alteration Introduction Weathering Mechanical weathering Weathering related to mineral composition Weathering related to ground-water movement Engineering properties of weathered rocks Low-temperature alterations at moderate depths Hydrothermal alteration Silicification Sericitization Argillization Pyritization Propylitization Chloritization Dolomitization Saussuritization Deuteric alteration Pneumatolytic alteration Miscellaneous types of alterationChapter 4. Elementary rock mechanics Introduction Glossary of definitions Force and stress Mechanical properties of rocks Stress—strain—time relationships Behavior of materials under stress Fractures in rocks Behavior of materials under triaxial stress Effects of temperature on strength of rocks Effects of time on strength of rocks Stresses in underground openings in isotropic elastic rocks Isotropism and anisotropism in rocks Strength of anisotropic rocks Measurement of stress in underground openings Strength of rocks from slope analysis Nonequilibrium forces in rocks Rock bursts Squeezing ground ReferencesChapter 5. Fracture and fold anisotropy in rocks Introduction Deformation of minerals under stress Deformation of elastic and quasi-elastic rocks Deformation of plastic rocks Folds in rocks Engineering aspects of folded rocks Faults Faulting as related to competency of rocks Fault filling and gouge Wall rock alteration associated with faults Major faults Joints Field study and graphical representation of multiple joints Spacing of joints and characteristics of joint surfaces Original joints in igneous rocks Original joints in sedimentary rocks Original joints in metamorphic rocks Tunnel sections in fractured rocks The arching tendency ReferencesChapter 6. Hydrogeology, temperatures, and gases in tunnels Introduction Water in rocks Porosity and permeability Permeability in volcanic rocks Water table and aquifers Sources and temperatures of underground water Fracture permeability Permeability in limestones Squeezing, swelling, and running ground Causes and mechanics of swelling in rocks Swelling pressures of clay-bearing rocks Squeezing ground Running ground Tunneling in squeezing, swelling, and running ground Testing of permeability of rocks Gases in rocks ReferencesChapter 7. Geological investigation of proposed tunnel locations Introduction Geomorphology and subsurface geology Geologic maps and cross-sections of tunnel sites Introduction Kinds of surface geologic maps Geologic cross-sections Columnar sections Geologic and geophysical data from field and laboratory investigations Geophysical investigations Introduction Seismic methods Gravity methods Magnetic methods Electrical methods Remote sensing including aerial photography Side-looking radar imagery (SLAR) Thermal imagery Color infrared photography Core drilling Introduction Core-hole logs Water testing Oriented cores Geophysical investigation and instrumental logging of core holes Use of equal-area plots for anisotropic rocks Statistical analysis and computerization of geological data ReferencesChapter 8. Application of geological investigations to tunnel planning and design Introduction Classification of geological materials Feasibility investigations of proposed tunnel sites Design-stage investigations A case history ReferencesChapter 9. Tunneling methods Introduction Conventional tunneling methods Tunneling machines Tunnel supports Ground water in tunnels Conventional versus mole tunneling Access to tunneling operations Tunneling terminology Glossary of tunneling terms ReferencesChapter 10. Geological investigations during tunnel construction Introduction Geological mapping of tunnels Tunnel supports and the geologist Special operations Progress related to geology Final report ReferencesIndex