The Porphyrin Handbook, Volume 16: Phthalocyanines: Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Characterization provides information pertinent to every aspect of the chemistry, synthesis, spectroscopy, and structure of phthalocyanines. This book examines the biology and medical implications of porphyrin systems. Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the photophysical properties of phthalocyanines that are important in relation to photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy, photoconductor, solar cells, and artificial photosynthesis. This text then describe how the data obtained from magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy has provided the critical information required to describe the excited and ground state degeneracies of main group metallophthalocyanines complexes. Other chapters consider the electrocatalysis by electrodes modified with phthalocyanine sensors and complexes. This book discusses as well the properties of phthalocyanines and of their complexes. The final chapter deals with the experiments with organic pigment thin films. This book is a valuable resource for research scientists, engineers, and clinicians.