The Peptides: Analysis, Synthesis, Biology: Volume 4: Modern Techniques of Conformational, Structural, and Configurational Analysis is an open-ended treatise that provides comprehensive and critical reviews of important developments in all areas of peptide research including analysis, synthesis, and biology. X-ray structure studies, amino acid analysis, and chiroptical analysis of configuration are discussed, along with solid-phase sequencing and ultramicroanalysis with the aid of fluorescence. This volume is comprised of six chapters and begins with an account of crystal structure analysis on molecules containing 2-12 peptide units, focusing on the variety of intramolecular hydrogen bonds, cis peptide units, and multiple conformation. Conformational changes upon complexation with metal ions are considered, together with the inclusion of solvents as integral parts of a molecular structure. The following chapters explore the conformations of insulin, glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide and related molecules, as well as the molecular biology of these hormones based on crystal structures; the usefulness of chiroptical techniques for determining the absolute configuration of amino acids and small peptides; and ultramicroanalysis of peptides and proteins by high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. The final chapter looks at the status and future potential of solid-phase sequencing. This book is intended as a reference for specialists, a guide for the novice, and a forum for investigators concerned with research on peptides and proteins.