The Impact of Protein Chemistry on the Biomedical Sciences focuses on the structure, function, and synthesis of proteins. This book examines the various approaches on how amino acids are polymerized in vitro, which involves the physical, chemical, immunological, enzymologic, biosynthetic, and organic synthetic techniques. Comprised of five parts encompassing 27 chapters, this book starts with an overview of Christian B. Anfinsen’s role in the development of protein chemistry and the training of scientists who have advanced their experiences in his laboratory to pioneer in the field of biological and medical sciences. This text then examines the synthesis of albumin molecule in the bloodstream as it carries cystine, hematin, bilirubin, fatty acids, and aromatic compounds. Other chapters discuss the kinetic experiments of hydrogen exchange in aqueous solution between peptide molecules and solvent water. This text also introduces the reader to the lipoprotein–atherosclerosis connection by studying the metabolism of plasma lipoproteins. This book is a valuable source of information for biologists, chemical biologists, scientists, and students.