Survey of Progress in Chemistry, Volume 4 considers the principles common to all chemistry that undergo major developments and modifications, including aqueous solutions, carbanions, stable isotopes, nitrogen fixation, ionizing radiation, and organic compound luminescence. This volume is organized into six chapters. The first chapter surveys first the theories of water and aqueous solutions structure, followed by the evaluation of temperature, pressure, and electrolytes on water. This chapter emphasizes the role of water structure in biological systems. The second chapter covers the generation, capture, mechanism of stabilization, and isomerization of carbanions, while the separation and practical applications of isotopes are examined in the third chapter. The following chapter describes the mechanism of nitrogen fixation by those cells capable of fixing nitrogen. The concluding chapters explore some aspects of the energy transfer process and the formation of intermediate molecular species. These chapters also evaluate the luminescence of organic systems. This book is of value to college chemistry teachers and students.