Advances in Control Systems: Theory and Applications, Volume 1 provides information pertinent to the significant progress in the field of automatic control. This book presents several fundamental approaches to algorithms for the determination of optimum control inputs to a system. Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the optimal method of controlling a given system with respect to the given criterion of performance. This text then summarizes some of the basic results of the maximum principle and illustrates how they may be exploited in control system studies. Other chapters consider the fundamental approach underlying almost all the existing works on the control of distributed parameter systems. This book discusses as well some important concepts in the theory of optimal control. The final chapter deals with the problem of controlling processes under the condition of uncertain changes in the process to be controlled. This book is a valuable resource for practicing engineers, applied mathematicians, and scientists.
Radiation, Radioactivity, and Insects focuses on the role of radiation and radioactivity in promoting the understanding of insects, including biochemistry, embryonic development, irradiation, and metabolism. The book first underscores the importance and dominance of insects in the animal kingdom, classification of insects, physiology and biochemistry, and embryonic development. The manuscript then examines the nongenetic effects of radiation, tagging, and insect control by irradiation. Topics include sex and genome number, nutritional status, mechanism of radiation damage, distribution and feeding studies, direct control by irradiation, and radiation effects. The publication takes a look at biochemistry, physiology, and insects and light, as well as amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis, permeability of the central nervous system, digestion and absorption, and elemental turnover. The manuscript then ponders on organophosphorus insecticides, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and miscellaneous insecticides. The book is a dependable source of data for entomologists, biologists, and readers who are interested in the role of radiation in advancing the understanding of insects.
Pulmonary Deposition and Retention of Inhaled Aerosols is concerned with the respiratory deposition and retention of inhaled aerosols, starting with initial intake and concluding with events that precede pathological tissue response, drawing equally upon both the physical and biological aspects of the subject. The book opens with an introductory chapter on the relationship between the dose of an inhaled aerosol and the kind and degree of response, and classification of particulate substances. This is followed by separate chapters on pulmonary deposition and retention of inhaled aerosols; the factors that influence disease risks associated with atmospheric exposure to aerosols; and measurement of aerosol composition and concentration. It is hoped that the book will help the specialists from both sides as well as technical and administrative personnel to acquire a common understanding of the important intermediate factors that operate between the outside dusty atmosphere and the internal tissue damage and disease—factors that may operate to make one exposure dangerous to life and another altogether innocuous.
The Ecology of Waste Water Treatment covers the principles of biology considered necessary for an understanding of some ecological aspects of wastewater treatment. This book is composed of seven chapters, and begins with an overview of the significant biological aspects related to wastewater treatment. The subsequent chapters examine the factors determining the dominant organisms in sludge and bacteria beds. Other chapters highlight the role of biological oxidation in wastewater treatment and the ecological parameters in the design and operation of activated sludge plants. A chapter provides practical methods of maintaining population balance at a low level of microorganisms. The final chapter considers the operational requirements necessary to ensure suitable ecological conditions for bacteria beds. This book is of value to microbiologists, ecologists, and environment-related fields.
River Pollution 2: Causes and Effects deals mainly with the causes of river pollution and the nature of the various kinds of pollution and their effects upon rivers. This book is an updated version of the first eight chapters of Aspects of River Pollution (first published early in 1957). Owing to the rapid development of the subject and the ever-increasing amount of literature devoted to it, some sections have been virtually rewritten, much new matter has been added, and minor alterations made throughout the text. This book begins with a review of the long history of river pollution, which can be traced back to ancient civilizations. Separate chapters deal with legal aspects of river pollution; the nature and effects of river pollution; the causes of river pollution; and uses of river water. Subsequent chapters cover the biochemical and physicochemical aspects of river pollution; the impact of river pollution on fishes; and biological aspects of river pollution.
Biological Waste Treatment is the outgrowth of a course entitled ""Bio-oxidation of Organic Wastes—Theory and Design"" initiated at Manhattan College in 1955. The objective of the course was to present the fundamentals of bio-oxidation which would serve as a framework for the analysis, design, and operation of biological waste treatment facilities. This book reflects the authors' approach to the solution of waste treatment problems. It is intended as an engineering text that applies the principles of physics, chemistry, and biology of waste treatment to the design and operation of waste treatment facilities. The book begins with discussions of the pollutional characteristics of waste waters, the strength and flow of waste, waste treatment processes, and biochemical oxygen demand. Subsequent chapters cover the principles of biological oxidation, the theory and practice of aeration, stream and estuary analysis, and solid-liquid separation. The final chapters deal with aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment processes and sludge handling and disposal. Although this text is primarily intended to serve as a guide for the practicing engineer, it should also serve as a useful reference for graduate students in sanitary engineering.
Waste Treatment contains the proceedings of the Second Symposium on the Treatment of Waste Waters, held on September 14-19, 1959 and organized by the Public Health Engineering Section of the Department of Civil Engineering of King's College at the University of Durham in the UK. The papers explore the theory and practice of wastewater treatment, with emphasis on biological treatment and the disposal of solids removed from liquid wastes. This book is comprised of 21 chapters and begins with a discussion on the biochemistry of aerobic treatment of organic waste and the biochemistry of anaerobic digestion. The next chapter deals with the ecology of activated sludge and bacteria beds and examines the factors determining the character and dominant organisms of a sludge. The reader is methodically introduced to the use of manometric methods in the study of sewage and trade wastes; biological oxidation systems for industrial waste treatment; application of recirculation to the purification of sewage and trade wastes; and treatment of distillery and antibiotics wastes. The effects of liquid wastes on receiving waters are also considered, along with the principles of vacuum filtration and their application to sludge-drying problems. The final chapter focuses on the reclamation of water from domestic and industrial wastes. This monograph will be a useful resource for policymakers and practitioners in the field of public health.
Chronic Radiation Hazards: An Experimental Study with Fast Neutrons describes a large-scale experiment on the hazards to be expected from low and very low levels of chronic irradiation by fast neutrons. Fast neutrons may be an environmental hazard around nuclear reactors and some machines for accelerating particles, and it is therefore of practical as well as academic importance to get some idea of the likely ill-effects of chronic irradiation by fast neutrons. The book is organized into four parts. Part I describes the experimental design, including factors such choice of animal, choice of dose rate, observation of radiation effects, dose measurements, and energy of the neutrons. Part II deals with the measurement of fast neutron dose. Topics discussed include Interaction of neutrons with light elements; energy absorption due to fast neutrons; energy absorption due to gamma rays; and ionization-dose and ionization-flux relations for fast neutrons. Part III discusses the results of fast neutron irradiation while Part IV covers the relative biological efficiency of fast neutrons and gamma rays for chronic exposures.
Radiation Dosimetry focuses on the advancements, processes, technologies, techniques, and principles involved in radiation dosimetry, including counters and calibration and standardization techniques. The selection first offers information on radiation units and the theory of ionization dosimetry and interaction of radiation with matter. Topics include quantities derivable from roentgens, determination of dose in roentgens, ionization dosimetry of high-energy photons and corpuscular radiations, and heavy charged particles. The text then examines the biological and medical effects of radiation, as well as radiation effects in malignant tissues, levels of radiation, and mechanism of radiation effects on living cells. The publication takes a look at ionization chambers, Geiger-Mueller counters and proportional counters, scintillation detectors, and photographic film dosimetry, Discussions focus on calibration and standardization techniques, scintillating materials and their light yield, scintillation detector dosimetry of neutrons, and the physics of counters. The text also ponders on chemical and colorimetric indicators and survey instruments and pocket dosimeters. The selection is a dependable reference for readers interested in radiation dosimetry.
Cloud Chamber Photographs of the Cosmic Radiation focuses on cloud chamber and photographic emulsion wherein the tracks of individual subatomic particles of high energy are studied. The publication first offers information on the technical features of operation and electrons and cascade showers. Discussions focus on the relationship in time and space of counter-controlled tracks; techniques of internal control of the cloud chamber; cascade processes with artificially-produced electrons and photons; and nuclear interaction associated with an extensive shower. The manuscript then elaborates on nuclear disintegrations and interactions of secondary particles and V-particles. Topics include neutral V-decays in which one secondary can be identified; nuclear disintegrations in a thick lead plate; penetrating shower in a high pressure cloud chamber; and products of an energetic star in the gas of the cloud chamber. The publication is a reliable reference for readers interested in the study of cloud chamber photographs and cosmic radiation.