This workbook is a practical companion to the second edition of the textbook Reservoir Stimulation. The two books are intended to be used together. This new volume should be particularly useful for the training of new engineers and petroleum engineering students, as it contains approximately 100 problems and their solutions, plus a lengthy chapter giving data necessary for designing a stimulation treatment. Chapters are included containing practical problems on reservoir and well considerations, rock mechanics, fracturing fluids and proppants, fracture calibration treatments, design and modeling of propped fractures, evaluation of fracture treatments, design of matrix treatments, diversion and treatment evaluation, design and performance of acid fractures and stimulation of horizontal wells. These chapters are labeled with letters from A to J to distinguish them from their companion chapters in Reservoir Stimulation. Equations, figures and tables from the textbook are referred to in the workbook but are not reproduced.
Covers essential parts of cloud and precipitation physics and has been extensively rewritten with over 60 new illustrations and many new and up to date references. Many current topics are covered such as mesoscale meteorology, radar cloud studies and numerical cloud modelling, and topics from the second edition, such as severe storms, precipitation processes and large scale aspects of cloud physics, have been revised. Problems are included as examples and to supplement the text.
The book begins with an overview of the research topics which were addressed in the three different phases of the Dutch Priority Program on Acidification (DPPA), executed between 1985 and 1994. This chapter is followed by a chapter which deals with the emissions of acidifying substances, the concentrations and the deposition to forest and nature conservation areas. Prognoses are given for the acid deposition in 2000 and 2010; the deposition in the countries surrounding the Netherlands is also mentioned. The differences in the results of the DPPA-II are analysed.The third chapter deals with the effects of exposure and load on forests. The chapter moves from small-scale to large-scale: first the effects in laboratory-scale studies are described, then the effects in the field, both at stand level and on a regional scale. In addition, the critical thresholds (critical level of concentration and critical load of deposition) are discussed.The fourth chapter covers terrestrial ecosystems (or parts thereof) as well as weakly buffered surface waters, springs and other streams. Critical levels and loads are also discussed. The most important results are given in chapter 5.In the appendices of the book, so-called umbrella theme reports on deposition, stand modelling and effects on forests are presented which describe in more detail the scientific work performed in the third phase of the DPPA.This book will be of interest to anyone involved in research related to acidification and eutrophication; i.e., not only those who perform the research in the causal chain from emissions to effects, but also policy-makers and students.
Representing the Proceedings of the International Speciality Conference "Acid Rain Research; Do we have enough answers?", this book provides a valuable conclusion to the coordinated research on acidification in the Netherlands from 1985 to 1994. The book focuses on atmospheric deposition, effects of acid deposition on forest ecosystems in the Netherlands, and future acidification research. Special attention is given to: trace gases; ammonia; and particle deposition; and the overall assessment of deposition loads to ecosystems and soils is also discussed.This volume will be invaluable to environmental scientists, ecologists, and those involved in atmospheric science/pollution.
This monograph is the last volume in the series 'Acoustic and Elastic Wave Fields in Geophysics'. The previous two volumes published by Elsevier (2000, 2002) dealt mostly with wave propagation in liquid media. The third volume is dedicated to propagation of plane, spherical and cylindrical elastic waves in different media including isotropic and transversely isotropic solids, liquid-solid models, and media with cylindrical inclusions (boreholes).
This book is a continuation of 'Acoustic and Elastic Wave Fields in Geophysics, Part I' published in 2000. The second volume is dedicated to propagation of linear plane, spherical and cylindrical acoustic waves in different media. Chapter 1 is devoted to principles of geometric acoustic in plane wave approximation. The eikonal and transport equations are derived. Ray tracing and wavefront construction techniques are explained. Chapter 2 deals with dynamic properties of wave fields. The behavior of pressure and displacements amplitudes in zero approximation is analysed in two ways: using Poynting vector and solving the transport equation. This chapter contains several examples related to shadow zones and caustics. In Chapter 3 using the results of analysis of high-frequency wave kinematics and dynamics some fundamental aspects of Kirchhoff migration are described. Chapters 4 and 5 are devoted to propagation of plane waves in media with flat boundaries in the case of normal and oblique incidence. Special attention is paid to the case when an incident angle exceeds the critical angles. Formation of normal modes in the waveguide is discussed. Chapter 6 deals with a spherical wave reflection and refraction. The steepest descent method is introduced to describe the behavior of reflected, transmitted, head and evanescent waves. In Chapter 7 propagation of stationary and transient waves in a waveguide formed by a flat layer with low velocity are investigated. Normal modes and waves related to the branch points of integrands under consideration are studied. Dispersive properties of normal modes are discussed. Chapter 8 describes wave propagation inside cylinder in acoustic media. Several appendices are added to help the reader understand different aspects of mathematics used in the book.
Acquisition and Processing of Marine Seismic Data demonstrates the main principles, required equipment, and suitable selection of parameters in 2D/3D marine seismic data acquisition, as well as theoretical principles of 2D marine seismic data processing and their practical implications. Featuring detailed datasets and examples, the book helps to relate theoretical background to real seismic data. This reference also contains important QC analysis methods and results both for data acquisition and marine seismic data processing. Acquisition and Processing of Marine Seismic Data is a valuable tool for researchers and students in geophysics, marine seismics, and seismic data, as well as for oil and gas exploration.
Hitoshi Mikada, Michael S Zhdanov and Junzo Kasahara
October 5, 2019
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Active Geophysical Monitoring, Second Edition, presents a key method for studying time-evolving structures and states in the tectonically active Earth's lithosphere. Based on repeated time-lapse observations and interpretation of rock-induced changes in geophysical fields periodically excited by controlled sources, active geophysical monitoring can be applied to a variety of fields in geophysics, from exploration, to seismology and disaster mitigation. This revised edition presents the results of strategic systematic development and the application of new technologies. It demonstrates the impact of active monitoring on solid Earth geophysics, also delving into key topics, such as carbon capture and storage, geodesy, and new technological tools. This book is an essential for graduate students, researchers and practitioners across geophysics.
Hans Sanderson, Mikael Hildén, Duncan Russel + 2 more
March 12, 2018
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Adapting to Climate Change in Europe: Exploring Sustainable Pathways - From Local Measures to Wider Policies is a scientific synthesis of a four-year project on adaptation activities in Europe. It combines scientific assessments with real-world case descriptions to present specific tools and methods. This book aims at ensuring sustainable solutions in adaptation to climate change. The challenge of adaptation is still at an early stage; this book fills relevant gaps in current knowledge on climate adaptation, providing a crucial set of tools to support effective decision-making. It acts as a guide to practitioners and decision-makers along different steps of on-going adaptation processes. Adapting to Climate Change in Europe contains methods and tools for improving stakeholder’s participation and analyzing costs and benefits of different adaptation measures. It is an essential resource for researchers, graduate students, and experts and policymakers working in climate change and adaptation.