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Stability and Control Flight Testing
2nd Edition - January 1, 1959
Editor: Courtland D. Perkins eBook ISBN:
9 7 8 - 1 - 4 8 3 2 - 2 2 3 3 - 2
Flight Testing, Volume II: Stability and Control focuses on the development of adequate flight test techniques for the appraisal of stability and control characteristics and…
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Flight Testing, Volume II: Stability and Control focuses on the development of adequate flight test techniques for the appraisal of stability and control characteristics and flying qualities of airplanes. This book discusses the flying quality requirements, longitudinal motions, and flight determination of stick-fixed neutral points. The determination of aerodynamic parameters from steady maneuvering, desirable control characteristics in steady flight, and various forms of lateral control surfaces are also elaborated. This publication likewise covers the measurement of maximum lift coefficient, emergency anti-spin devices, and concept of the altitude-Mach number flight envelope. This volume is recommended for design, development or research engineers, test pilots, and instrumentation personnel interested in airplane stability and control. Preface Acknowledgements Chapter 1 Introduction 1:1 Historical 1:2 Flying Quality Requirements 1:3 Dynamic Longitudinal Stability 1:4 Static Longitudinal Stability (Straight Flight) 1:5 Static Longitudinal Stability (Curved Flight Path) 1:6 Control Power 1:7 Longitudinal Trim Changes and Trimming Devices 1:8 Dynamic Lateral Stability 1:9 Static Directional and Lateral Stability 1:10 Rudder Control Power 1:11 Rudder Pedal Forces 1:12 Lateral Control Power 1:13 Lateral Control Forces 1:14 Directional and Lateral Trimming Devices 1:15 Stalling Characteristics 1:16 Spinning Characteristics 1:17 High Speed Requirements 1:18 Flight Research Chapter 2 Airplane Motions Abstract Terminology 2:1 Introduction 2:2 Equations of Motion 2:3 Longitudinal Motions 2:4 Lateral Motions References Chapter 3 Static Longitudinal Stability and Control Abstract Terminology 3:1 Introduction 3:2 Neutral Points and Maneuver Points 3:3 The Flight Determination of Stick-Fixed Neutral Points 3:4 The Flight Determination of Stick-Free Neutral Points 3:5 Effective Weight Moment Testing 3:6 Nose Wheel Lift-Off 3:7 Landing Hold-Off 3:8 Change in Trim with Power and Flap Settings References Chapter 4 Flight Testing Aircraft for Longitudinal Maneuvering Characteristics Abstract Terminology 4:1 Introduction 4:2 Flying Qualities Requirements 4:3 Prediction of Stick-Fixed Maneuvering Characteristics 4:4 Prediction of Stick-Free Maneuvering Characteristics 4:5 Instrumentation 4:6 Flight Test Techniques 4:7 Data Reduction Methods and Typical Flight Test Data 4:8 Determination of Aerodynamic Parameters from Steady Maneuvering Flight Data References Chapter 5 Lateral and Directional Control and the Measurement of Aerodynamic Coefficients in Steady Asymmetric Flight and in Flight on Asymmetric Power Abstract Terminology 5:1 Introduction 5:2 Desirable Control Characteristics in Steady Flight 5:3 Relations Between Control Position and Sideslip Stability and Aerodynamic Coefficients of the Aircraft 5:4 Flight Tests for Determination of the Control Position and Sideslip Stability Parameters and Control Effectiveness Coefficients 5:5 Calculation of Stability Derivatives from Results of Flight Tests 5:6 Lateral and Directional Control in Flight on Asymmetric Power 5:7 Flight Tests on Asym netric Power 5:8 Summary References Appendices I. Relation Between Control Position Stability and Dynamic Stability II. Definition of Aircraft Configurations Tables Chapter 6 Flight Techniques Used to Determine Adequacy of Lateral Control Abstract Terminology 6:1 Introduction 6:2 Specific Requirements Applicable to Lateral Control 6:3 Design Parameters Affecting Compliance with Requirements 6:4 Various Forms of Lateral Control Surfaces 6:5 Instrumentation for Lateral Control Testing 6:6 Flight Test Procedure for Lateral Control Testing 6:7 Data Reduction and Typical Data References Chapter 7 Stalling and the Measurement of Maximum Lift Abstract 7:1 Introduction 7:2 Maximum Lift 7:3 The Lift-Incidence Curve and Stalling Behavior 7:4 Drag 7:5 Pitching Moment 7:6 Investigation of Stalling Behavior 7:7 Measurement of Maximum Lift Coefficient 7:8 High Lift Devices and Stalling Behavior Chapter 8 Spinning Part I General Principles of Spinning Abstract Terminology 8:1 Introduction 8:2 Equilibrium in the Spin 8:3 The Methods of Recovery from the Spin and Control Effectiveness 8:4 The Oscillatory Spin 8:5 The Inverted Spin 8:6 Anti-Spin Parachutes Part II Spin Flight Tests 8:7 Historical Background 8:8 Model Spin Tests and Full Scale Correlation 8:9 Design Considerations 8:10 Spinning of Unconventional Aircraft 8:11 Emergency Anti-Spin Devices 8:12 Spin Chute Cockpit Controls 8:13 Checks of Spin Chute Installation 8:14 Instrumentation 8:15 Choice of Pilot 8:16 The Flight Spin Tests 8:17 Reduction of Data 8:18 Presentation of Data in Graphical Form 8:19 General Form of the Test Report Chapter 9 High Speed Stability and Control Problems Terminology 9:1 Introduction 9:2 General Remarks on High Speed Stability and Control Flight Testing 9:3 Concept of the Altitude-Mach Number Flight Envelope 9:4 Concept of the Load Factor-Mach Number Flight Envelope 9:5 Testing Procedures for Some Special High Speed Stability and Control Problems 9:6 Testing Problems Associated with Irreversible Flight-Control Systems 9:7 Testing Problems Associated with Automatic Flight-Control Systems at High Speeds 9:8 Conclusions References Chapter 10 Dynamic Response Techniques 10:1 Introduction 10:2 Symbols and Notation 10:3 Historical Sketch of Dynamic Stability Testing 10:4 Methods of Performing Dynamic Response Measurements 10:5 Equations of Motion 10:6 Fundamental Limitations on Derivative Extraction 10:7 Analysis Techniques 10:8 Conversion of Transient Response to Frequency Response Form 10:9 Nonstationary Flow Effects 10:10 Aeroelastic Effects 10:11 Examples of Results Obtained from Flight Tests References Chapter 11 Measurement and Interpretation of Flight Test Data for Dynamic Stability and Control Abstract 11:1 Introduction 11:2 The Conduct of Flight Tests 11:3 General Instrument Requirements 11:4 Instrument Characteristics 11:5 Interpretation of Data References Chapter 12 Routine Handling Tests for Helicopters 12:1 Introduction 12:2 Preflight Tests 12:3 Starting, Run-Up, Taxying 12:4 Assessment of Controls in Flight 12:5 Assessment of Stability 12:6 Night Flying and Instrument Flying 12:7 Center of Gravity Range and Other Envelope Conditions 12:8 Standards of Acceptance Chapter 13 Study of the Handling Characteristics of Helicopters by Harmonic Methods Terminology 13:1 Statement of the Problem 13:2 Theoretical Study of the Transfer Function of a Helicopter in Hovering 13:3 Experimental Determination of Helicopter Response Characteristics 13:4 Introduction of a Human Pilot 13:5 Study of the Closed-Cycle Helicopter + Pilot 13:6 Concluding Remarks Chapter 14 A Survey of Flight Flutter Testing Techniques Preface 14:1 Introduction 14:2 Definition and Scope of Flight Flutter Testing 14:3 General Techniques of Flight Flutter Testing 14:4 Methods of Excitation 14:5 Measuring and Recording Methods 14:6 Conclusions References
Published: January 1, 1959
eBook ISBN: 9781483222332