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Semiconductor Lasers and Herterojunction LEDs
1st Edition - December 28, 1977
Author: Henry Kressel
9 7 8 - 0 - 3 2 3 - 1 4 4 3 4 - 6
Semiconductor Lasers and Heterojunction LEDs presents an introduction to the subject of semiconductor lasers and heterojunction LEDs. The book reviews relevant basic solid-state… Read more
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Semiconductor Lasers and Heterojunction LEDs presents an introduction to the subject of semiconductor lasers and heterojunction LEDs. The book reviews relevant basic solid-state and electromagnetic principles; the relevant concepts in solid state physics; and the p-n junctions and heterojunctions. The text also describes stimulated emission and gain; the relevant concepts in electromagnetic field theory; and the modes in laser structures. The relation between electrical and optical properties of laser diodes; epitaxial technology; binary III-V compounds; and diode fabrication are also considered. The book further tackles the heterojunction devices of alloys other than GaAs-AlAs; the devices for special applications; distributed-feedback lasers; and the transient effects in laser diodes. Students taking courses in semiconductor lasers and heterojunction LEDs will find the book useful.
PrefaceIntroduction 1.1 Background 1.2 Outline ReferencesChapter 1 Resume of Relevant Concepts in Solid State Physics 1.1 Crystal Structure 1.2 Bonding and Band Structure 1.3 Dopants 1.4 Electron Distribution and Density of States 1.5 Electron-Hole Pair Formation and Recombination 1.6 Minority Carrier Diffusion 1.7 Radiative Recombination Processes Other than Band-to-Band 1.8 Nonradiative Recombination Processes ReferencesChapter 2 p-n Junctions and Heterojunctions 2.1 Current-Voltage Characteristics 2.2 Junction Capacitance 2.3 Heterojunctions 2.4 Light-Current Relationships in Spontaneous Emission 2.5 Diode Frequency Response as Limited by Carrier Lifetime ReferencesChapter 3 Stimulated Emission and Gain 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Optical Gain in the Two-Level Atomic System 3.3 Optical Gain in a Direct Bandgap Semiconductor 3.4 The Fabry-Perot Cavity and Threshold Condition 3.5 Laser Transitions ReferencesChapter 4 Relevant Concepts in Electromagnetic Field Theory 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Maxwell's Equations 4.3 Complex Dielectric Constant 4.4 Boundary Conditions 4.5 Poynting's Theorem 4.6 Vector Wave Equation 4.7 Plane Waves 4.8 Plane Wave Reflection and Transmission at Plane Boundaries ReferencesChapter 5 Modes in Laser Structures: Mainly Theory 5.1 Laser Topology and Modes 5.2 Waveguide Equations 5.3 Wave Definitions 5.4 Slab Waveguides 5.5 Slab Waveguide Mode Characteristics 5.6 Propagation in a Dissipative/Gain Medium 5.7 Three-Dimensional Modes in Practical Structures 5.8 Five-Layer Slab Waveguide Modes 5.9 Modal Facet Reflectivity 5.10 Mode Selection in Laser Structures ReferencesChapter 6 Laser Radiation Fields 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Radiation from Slab Waveguides 6.3 Boundary Solution of the Radiation Fields 6.4 Modal Radiation Patterns from Slab Waveguides 6.5 Radiation of Three-Layer Slab Modes 6.6 Radiation from Two-Dimensional Waveguides ReferencesChapter 7 Modes in Laser Structures: Mainly Experimental 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Double-Heterojunction Lasers 7.3 Four-Heterojunction Lasers 7.4 Asymmetrical Structures—Single-Heterojunction (Close-Confinement) Lasers 7.5 Large Optical Cavity Lasers—Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Structures 7.6 Experimental/Theoretical Radiation Patterns (Transverse Modes) 7.7 Lateral "s" Modes 7.8 Summary ReferencesChapter 8 Relation between Electrical and Optical Properties of Laser Diodes 8.1 Carrier Confinement and Injected Carrier Utilization 8.2 Threshold Current Density and Differential Quantum Efficiency 8.3 Temperature Dependence of Jth 8.4 Optical Anomalies and Radiation Confinement Loss in Asymmetrical Heterojunction Lasers ReferencesChapter 9 Epitaxial Technology 9.1 Liquid Phase Epitaxy 9.2 Vapor Phase Epitaxy 9.3 Molecular Beam Epitaxy 9.4 Lattice Mismatch Effects 9.5 Substrate Considerations ReferencesChapter 10 Binary III-V Compounds 10.1 Gallium Arsenide 10.2 Gallium Phosphide 10.3 Gallium Antimonide 10.4 Indium Arsenide 10.5 Indium Phosphide 10.6 Aluminum Arsenide and Aluminum Phosphide ReferencesChapter 11 Ternary and Quaternary III-V Compounds 11.1 General Considerations 11.2 Phase Diagrams—Introduction 11.3 Principal Ternary Alloys 11.4 Quaternary Compounds ReferencesChapter 12 Diode Fabrication and Related Topics 12.1 Junction Formation and Layer Characterization 12.2 Some Key Properties of AlχGa1-χAs Relevant to Device Design 12.3 Active Junction Area Definition 12.4 Thermal Dissipation of Laser Diodes ReferencesChapter 13 Heterojunction Devices of Alloys Other than GaAs-AlAs 13.1 Introduction 13.2 IV- VI Compound Lasers 13.3 III-V Compound Lasers 13.4 Summary ReferencesChapter 14 Devices for Special Applications 14.1 High Peak Power, Pulsed Operation Laser Diodes 14.2 Fiber Concepts Relevant to Optical Communications 14.3 Near-Infrared CW Laser Diodes of (AlGa)As 14.4 High Radiance Light-Emitting Diodes 14.5 Visible Emission Laser Diodes 14.6 General Purpose Heterojunction LEDs ReferencesChapter 15 Distributed-Feedback Lasers 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Coupled Mode Analysis 15.3 Solution of Coupled Modes 15.4 GaAs-(AlGa)As DFB Lasers ReferencesChapter 16 Device Reliability 16.1 Facet (Catastrophic) Degradation 16.2 Internal Damage Mechanisms 16.3 Technology of Reliable Devices ReferencesChapter 17 Transient Effects in Laser Diodes 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Turn-On Effects 17.3 Continuous Oscillations 17.4 Oscillations Related to Nonuniform Population Inversion 17.5 Diode Modulation 17.6 Summary ReferencesAppendix A Physical ConstantsAppendix B Gain in Strong Fields and Lateral Multimoding B.l Introduction B.2 Spatial Modulation of the Gain and Multimoding B.3 Optically Induced Saturation of Transition Probabilities B.4 Spontaneous Power in the Lasing Region B.5 SummaryAppendix C Pressure Effects o n Heterojunction Laser Diodes C.l Uniaxial Stress C.2 Hydrostatic StressAppendix D Atmosphere Attenuation of GaAs Laser EmissionAppendix E Single Mode Emission Line WidthIndex