Science and the Second Renaissance of Europe focuses on the role of science in the cultural, economic, and social fabric of Europe. This book analyzes Europe's situation in areas such as demography, economics, and technology and demonstrates its vulnerability where space is limited and the balance of the environment easily upset. It argues that Europe lacks the primary resources essential for its development and will soon be facing serious demographic problems, and proposes a suitable policy for scientific and technical research. This book is divided into three sections and begins with a discussion on what the European identity can be and a reflection on its long-term consequences. A balance sheet showing Europe's political situation, demography, geographical and economic data, and capacity for innovation is presented. The idea-forces of Western European culture are also considered. The second section is a plea for European development based on the strength of European culture and the abilities of the Europeans. In this framework, emphasis is placed on intellectual activities, activities in information dissemination and processing, and cooperation with developing countries. The third section outlines a plan for science and technology that could lead to a Second Renaissance in the European Community. This monograph will be a valuable resource for scientists and science policymakers.