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Radio Wave Propagation
Consolidated Summary Technical Report of the Committee on Propagation of the National Defense Research Committee
1st Edition - January 1, 1949
Author: Chas. R. Burrows
Editor: Stephen S. Attwood
9 7 8 - 1 - 4 8 3 2 - 5 8 5 4 - 6
Radio Wave Propagation: Consolidated Summary Technical Report of the Committee on Propagation of the National Defense Research Committee presents all the scientific information… Read more
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Radio Wave Propagation: Consolidated Summary Technical Report of the Committee on Propagation of the National Defense Research Committee presents all the scientific information and report of experiments. This book discusses the problems encountered in the propagation of radio waves. Organized into three volumes, this book begins with an overview of the technical developments in the study of tropospheric propagation. This text then outlines the general theory of standard and nonstandard propagation together with descriptions and results of transmission experiments designed to test the theory. Other chapters consider the more unusual problems concerning the radar behavior of targets. This book discusses as well the problems of radio wave propagation in the standard atmosphere at frequencies above 30 megacycles. The final chapter deals with the selection and utilization of local terrain features that affect propagation and the performance of equipment. This book is a valuable resource for scientists and engineers in the field of radio wave propagation.
Volume I Technical SurveyPart I Summary Chapter 1. Standard Propagation Introduction Power Transmission Optical Properties of the Earth's Surface and Atmosphere The Electromagnetic Field Chapter 2. Elementary Theory Of Nonstandard Propagation Historical Refractive Index Types of M Curves Ray Tracing General Characteristics of Ducts Survey of Waveguide Theory Reflection from Elevated Layers Chapter 3. Meteorological Measurements Introduction Temperature and Humidity Elements The Wired Sonde Refractive Index Measurements Other Meteorological Instruments Representative Observed Μ Curves Chapter 4. Transmission Experiments British Experiments Experiments at the Eastern Coast of the U. S. Experiments in Northwestern United States and Canada Experiments in the Southwestern United States Experiments at Antigua Angle-of-Arrival Measurements Chapter 5. General Meteorology And Forecasting Introduction Atmospheric Stratification Conditions Over Land Coastal and Maritime Conditions Dynamic Effects World Survey Radar Forecasting Chapter 6. Scattering And Absorption Of Microwaves Absorption and Radar Cross Section Aircraft Targets Ship Targets Absorption and Scattering by Clouds, Fog, Rain, Hail, and SnowPart II Conference Reports On Standard Propagation Chapter 7. A Graphical Method For The Determination Of Standard Coverage Charts Chapter 8. Nomographic Solutions For The Standard Case Chapter 9. Theoretical Analysis Of Errors In Radar Due To Atmospheric Refraction Purpose Procedure Application to Ground Radar Equipments Conclusions Chapter 10. Diffraction Of Radio Waves Over Hills Chapter 11. Siting And Coverage Of Ground Radars Introduction Radar Systems Types of Ground Radar Radar Systems — Tactical Aspects Radar Siting — Technical Aspects Topography of Siting Introduction Maps and Surveys Profiles Orientation Visibility Problems Diffraction of Radio Waves Introduction Wave Propagation Fresnel Zones Reflection from Rough Surfaces — Rayleigh's Criterion Diffraction at Obstacles Fresnel Integrals The Cornu Spiral Straight Edge Diffraction Location of Maxima and Minima The Rectangular Slit Diffraction by a Narrow Obstacle Multiple Slits and Obstacles Limitations of Fresnel's Theory Permanent Echoes Introduction Permanent Echo Diagrams Use of Permanent Echoes in Testing Shielding Prediction of Permanent Echoes Prediction by Profile Method Microwave Permanent Echoes The Calculation of Vertical Coverage Introduction The Vertical Coverage Diagram Flat Earth Lobe Angle Calculations Lobe Angles Corrected for Standard Earth Curvature The General Lobe Angle Formula The Calculation of Lobes Low Site Lobes Lobe Diagrams of Medium Height Sites Shoreline Diffraction Sea Reflection with Diffuse Land Reflection General Formula for the Reflection Area The Modified Antenna Pattern Antenna Patterns Local Terrain Effects Earth Curvature Effect on Lobe Lengths Coefficient of Reflection Divergence Lobe Lengths The General Lobe Formula Calibration and Testing Equipment Tests Signal Measurements Conduct of Test Flights Analysis of Test Data Chapter 12. Variations In Radar Coverage Bending Guided Propagation Meteorological Factors Cloud Echoes in Radar Summary of Basic Facts Concerning Propagation at Radar FrequenciesPart III Conference Reports On Nonstandard Propagation Chapter 13. Tropospheric Propagation And Radio Meteorology Fundamentals of Propagation Significance of Propagation Problems Factors Influencing Propagation Reflection from the Ground Refraction — Snell's Law Refraction Over a Curved Earth Equivalent Earth Radius — Flat Earth Diagram The Horizon — Diffraction Atmospheric Stratification and Refraction Origin of Refractive Index Variations The Measurement of Refractive Index Types of Modified Index Curves Rays in a Stratified Atmosphere The Duct — Superrefraction Wave Picture of Guided Propagation Reflection from an Elevated Layer Operational Applications Radio Meteorology Temperature and Moisture Gradients Physical Causes of Stratification — Turbulence Advective Ducts — Coastal Conditions Ducts Over the Open Ocean Nocturnal Cooling — Daily Variations Fog Subsidence — Dynamic Effects Seasonal and Global Aspects of Superrefraction Fluctuations in Signal Strength with Time Scattering and Absorption by Water Drops Snell's Law Chapter 14. Theoretical Treatment Of Nonstandard Propagation In The Diffraction Zone Chapter 15. Characteristic Values For The First Mode For The Bilinear M Curve Chapter 16. Incipient Leakage In A Surface Duct Calculations for the First Mode of the Bilinear Model Calculations for the Second and Higher Modes of the Bilinear Model Chapter 17. The Solution Of The Propagation Equation In Terms Of Hankel Functions Chapter 18. Attenuation Diagrams For Surface Ducts Chapter 19. Approximate Analysis Of Guided Propagation In A Nonhomogeneous Atmosphere Chapter 20. Some Theoretical Results On Nonstandard Propagation Propagation in the Oceanic Surface Duct Characteristic Values for a Continuously Varying Modified Index Chapter 21. Perturbation Theory For An Exponential M Curve In Nonstandard Propagation Abstract Introduction Formal Solution of the Problem by the Perturbation Method Evaluation of ßnm(λ) as an Indefinite Integral Properties of ßnm (λ) Iteration Method of Solving for the Characteristic Values Dk and the Coefficients Akm Expansion of Dk into a Power Series in α Applicability of Perturbation Method to a More General Class of Μ Anomalies Computational Program for the Exponential Model Symbols for Use in Theory of Nonstandard Propagation Chapter 22. First Order Estimation Of Radar Ranges Over The Open Ocean Chapter 23. Convergence Effects In Reflections From Tropospheric Layers Convergence Factor Roughness Effect ConclusionsVolume II Radio Wave Propagation ExperimentsPart I Meteorology Chapter 1. Meteorology — Theory Modification of Warm Air by a Cold Water Surface Diffusion Equation Discussion of Procedure Previous Investigations Conclusion Difficulties of Low-Level Diffusion Problems Preliminary Results of Meteorological Measurements in Massachusetts Bay Modification of Air Flowing Over Water The M Deficit Neutral Equilibrium Unstable Equilibrium Stable Equilibrium Meteorology of the San Diego Transmission Experiments Methods of Observation The San Diego High Inversion Shape of the Inversion Surface Tables for Computing the Modified Index of Refraction, Μ Introduction Use of Tables Procedure Used in Setting Up Tables Diurnal Variation of the Gradient of Modified Μ Index Temperature Lapse Rates Over Land Temperature Lapse Rates Over the Sea Vertical Vapor Pressure Gradients Vertical M Gradient Determining Fluctuations in Refractive Index Near Land or Sea Gravitational Waves and Temperature Inversions Analysis of Ducts in the Trade Wind Regions Elevated Ducts Surface Ducts Experimental Evidence Conclusions Chapter 2. Meteorological Equipment For Short Wave Meteorological Equipment for Propagation Studies Outline of Problem Wet and Dry Bulb Methods Temperature and Humidity Resistance Elements Circuit Design for Resistor Elements Anemometers Semipermanent Installations Measurements on Board Planes and Dirigibles Captive Balloon Sondes and Kites Automatic Recording of Meteorological Soundings Chapter 3. Meteorology — Forecasting Forecasting Temperature and Moisture Distribution Over Massachusetts Bay Meteorological Observations Forecast Program Army Analysis and Forecasts How the Forecast is Made Radar Propagation Forecasting Application of Forecasting Techniques and Climatology Radio-Meteorology Specific Relationships Between Meteorological Elements and Radar Performance Computed Climatological Information on Surface Ducts Direct Indications of Nonstandard Conditions in the Western Pacific AppendixPart II Miscellaneous Experiments Chapter 4. Reflection Coefficients Reflection Coefficient Measurements at the Radiation Laboratory Earth Constants in the Microwave Range Reflection Coefficients Summary of Experimental Investigations on Reflection Specular Reflection and Scattering Measurements of the Reflection Coefficient of Land at Centimeter Wavelengths, Carried Out at National Physical Laboratory Chapter 5. Dielectric Constant, Absorption And Scattering Absorption and Scattering of Microwaves by the Atmosphere Introduction Scattering and Absorption of Radio Waves by Spherical Particles The Scattering Amplitudes an2 and bn2 The Attenuation of Radio Waves by Spherical Raindrops Typical Data on Clouds, Fogs, and Rains Attenuation by Idealized Precipitation Forms The Scattering of Microwaves by Spherical Raindrops Back Scattering (Echoes) Summary K-Band Absorption — Experimental Absorption of K-Band Radiation by Water Vapor K-Band Attenuation Due to Rainfall Introduction Rainfall Intensity Radio Equipment Analysis Absorption of Microwaves by the Atmosphere, British Work Dielectric Constant and Loss Factor of Liquid Water and the Atmosphere Experimental Methods Laboratory Measurements of Dielectric Properties Chapter 6. Storm Detection Storm Detection by Radar Procedure Weather Information Correlations Correlations with Echo Correlations with Weather Stations Résumé of Correlations Fraction Detected by Radar of Total Quantity of Rainfall Comparison with Ryde's Theory The Best Frequency for Storm Detection Ultimate Range — Greater Range of a Production Set S-Band Radar Echoes from Snow Chapter 7. Echoes And Targets Fluctuations of Radar Echoes Interference Concept Assemblies of Random Scatterers Ground Clutter Targets Viewed Over Water The Frequency Dependence of Sea Echo The Dependence of Signal Threshold Power on Receiver Parameters Radar Scattering Over Cross-Section Area Chapter 8. Angle-Of-Arrival Measurements Angle-of-Arrival Measurements in the X Band Meteorological Analysis of Angle-of-Arrival Measurements Purpose Theory Analysis of the BTL New York-to-Beer's Hill Circuit The Angle of Arrival Deduced from Type Cases of Atmospheric Stratification Comparison of Computed to Measured Angle of Arrival ConclusionsVolume III The Propagation Of Radio Waves Through The Standard Atmosphere Chapter 1. Propagation Of Radio Waves: Introduction And Objectives Factors Influencing Propagation Fundamental Problems and Limitations Meaning of Propagation Atmosphere Layers Standard Atmosphere Propagation in the Moist Standard Atmosphere Propagation in Nonstandard Atmospheres Radio Gain Radio Gain of Doublet Antennas in Free Space Survey of Propagation Outline Factors Modifying Transmission General Nature of the Radiation Field Typical Radio Gain Curves Units and Frequency Ranges Units Symbols for Frequency Ranges Chapter 2. Fundamental Relations The Electric Doublet in Free Space Radiation of an Electric Doublet Reception by an Electric Doublet Transmission Between Doublets in Free Space Power Transmission Reciprocity Radio Gain Antenna Gain Polarization The Reciprocity Principle Receiver Sensitivity Thermal Noise Noise Figure Receiver Sensitivity Measurement of the Noise Figure Sensitivity of Radar Receivers Radar Cross Section and Gain Radar Cross Section Radar Gain Chapter 3. Antennas Fundamentals Function of Antennas Directive Antennas Antenna Pattern Factors in Ground Reflection Standing-Wave Antennas Resonant Antennas Traveling-Wave Antennas Radiation Resistance Influence of Near-by Conducting Bodies Standing-Wave Antennas Linear Antennas Half-Wave Antennas Half-Wave Dipole Modifications of the Half-Wave Dipole Multiple Half-Wave Long Antennas Cophased Half-Wave Dipoles Effects of Finite Diameter on Center-Fed Linear Antennas Standing-Wave V Antennas Traveling-Wave Antennas Field and Pattern Traveling-Wave V Antennas Rhombic Antennas Antenna Arrays Principle of Arrays Basic Types of Dipole Arrays Two-Dipole Side-by-Side Array Two-Dipole Colinear Array One-Dimensional Array Unidirectional Broadside and Colinear Arrays Multidimensional Arrays Binomial Arrays Ring Arrays Parasitic Reflectors and Directors Parasitic Antennas Half-Wave Dipole and Parasite Multiple Parasites. Yagi Antennas Reflecting Screens Corner-Reflector Antenna Parabolic Elements Parabolic Reflectors Horns Types of Horns Sectoral Horn with TE1,0 Wave Chapter 4. Factors Influencing Transmission Refraction Survey Snell's Law Modified Refractive Index Graphical Representation Curvature Relationships Alternate Method Computation of Refractive Index Atmospheric Stratification Direct Determination of k Ground Reflection Ground Reflection and Coverage Complexity of Reflection Problem Plane Reflecting Surface Fresnel's Formulas The Complex Dielectric Constant of Water Overland Transmission Conductivity of Soil Dielectric Constant of Soil The Divergence Factor Irregularity of Ground Diffraction (General Survey) Definition Diffraction by Earth's Curvature Diffraction by Terrain Diffraction by Targets Chapter 5. Calculation Of Radio Gain Introduction Objectives Definitions Relative to Radio Gain Factors Affecting Attenuation and Gain Simplifying Assumptions Curved-Earth Geometrical Relationships Optical and Diffraction Regions Nature of the Radiation Field in the Standard Atmosphere Propagation Factors in the Interference Region Propagation Factors Spreading Effect Interference Imperfect Reflection Divergence Antenna Gain and Directivity General Solution Generalized Reflection Coefficient Plane Earth Use of Plane Earth Formula Path Difference Field Strength Equations Spherical Earth Measurement of Distance Equivalent Heights Angles Determination of Reflection Point (d1) Path Difference Divergence Factor Parameters p and q Generalized Coordinates Illustrative Calculations for the Optical Interference Region Introduction Problem of Type I. Radio Gain for Fixed Heights and Distance Type II. Radio Gain Versus Receiver Height for Given Distance Type III. Radio Gain Versus Distance for Given Antenna Heights Type IV. Determination of Contours Along Which Gain Factor A Has a Given Value, the Transmitter Height and Wavelength Being Given Maximum Range Versus Receiver (or Target) Height Below the Interference Region Analysis of the First Mode Effect of Changing the Value of k Graphs for the Case of the Dielectric Earth (δ≫1) Sea Water, VHF, Vertical Polarization Radio Gain Near the Line of Sight General Solution for Vertical (or Horizontal) Dipole Over a Smooth Sphere Sample Calculation for Very Dry Soil Chapter 6. Coverage Diagrams Definitions Plane Earth Field Strength Angles of Lobe Maxima (Horizontal Polarization) Angles of Lobe Maxima (Vertical Polarization) Lobe Equation Spherical Earth Lobe Characteristics The p-q Method (Horizontal Polarization) Outline of Method Construction of Range Loci Construction of Path-Difference Loci The u-v Method Outline of Method Construction of Lobes (Horizontal Polarization) Construction of Lobes (Vertical Polarization) Lobe-Angle Method (Horizontal Polarization) Outline of Method Basic Relations Reflection-Point Curves Lobe Angles with Horizontal Use of Modified Divergence Factor Construction of Lobes Correction for Low Angles Lobe-Angle Method (Vertical Polarization) Angles of Lobe Maxima Construction of Lobes Generalized Coverage Diagrams (Horizontal Polarization) Basic Parameters Determination of d0 Determination of r Use of Charts Chapter 7. Propagation Aspects Of Equipment Operation General Problem Introduction The Performance Figure and Efficiency Effect of Reflection Signal-to-Noise Ratio Calibration of an A Scope Free Space — High-Angle Coverage Maximum Range Formulas Deviation from Maximum of Beam Performance Figure Radar Cross Section Low-Angle and Surface Coverage Maximum Range Ducts and Set Performance Low Heights and Plane Earth Range Maximum Range Versus Height Curves Estimating Ship Size Performance Check Data on Equipment Chapter 8. Diffraction By Terrain Outline of Theory Introduction The Fresnel Diffraction Theory Mechanism of Diffraction The Straight Edge Formula The Fresnel Integrals Application to Straight Edge Polarization. Large Angles Digression on Fresnel's Theory Fresnel Zones Diffraction by a Slot Diffraction by Hills Introduction Criterion for Roughness Diffraction by a Straight Ridge Field Near the Line of Sight Diffraction with Reflecting Ground Diffraction by Coasts Introduction Level Site Near Coast Equation for Field Strength Example Cliff Site Chapter 9. Targets Scattering Parameters Radar Cross Section Target Gain Echo Constant Equivalent Plate Area Scattering Coefficient of Characteristic Length Radar Cross Section of Simple Forms Spheres Cylinders Plates Corner Reflectors Aircraft Variation with Aspect Measurement of σ Chapter 10. Siting General Siting Requirements Topography of Siting Profiles Geometrical Limits of Visibility Horizon Formulas Height of Obstacle Extended Obstacle Degree of Shielding Permanent Echoes Permanent Echo Diagrams Shielding Prediction of Permanent Echoes Prediction by the Profile Method Effect of Trees, Jungle, etc. The Effect of Trees The Effect of Jungles Effect on MicrowavesAppendix. Transmission Experiments Massachusetts Bay Near San Diego Arizona Antigua, West Indies EnglandGlossaryBibliography Appendix Bibliography Bibliography — Volume I Bibliography — Volume II General Bibliography