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## Basic Geometrical Optics

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### Erwin Kasper

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2nd Edition - October 29, 2017

Authors: Peter W. Hawkes, Erwin Kasper

Language: EnglishPaperback ISBN:

9 7 8 - 0 - 0 8 - 1 0 2 2 5 6 - 6

eBook ISBN:

9 7 8 - 0 - 0 8 - 1 0 2 2 5 7 - 3

Volume one of Principles of Electron Optics: Basic Geometrical Optics, Second Edition, explores the geometrical optics needed to analyze an extremely wide range of instrumen… Read more

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Volume one of *Principles of Electron Optics: Basic Geometrical Optics, Second Edition,* explores the geometrical optics needed to analyze an extremely wide range of instruments: cathode-ray tubes; the family of electron microscopes, including the fixed-beam and scanning transmission instruments, the scanning electron microscope and the emission microscope; electron spectrometers and mass spectrograph; image converters; electron interferometers and diffraction devices; electron welding machines; and electron-beam lithography devices.

The book provides a self-contained, detailed, modern account of electron optics for anyone involved with particle beams of modest current density in the energy range up to a few mega-electronvolts. You will find all the basic equations with their derivations, recent ideas concerning aberration studies, extensive discussion of the numerical methods needed to calculate the properties of specific systems and guidance to the literature of all the topics covered. A continuation of these topics can be found in volume two, *Principles of Electron Optics: Applied Geometrical Optics.*

The book is intended for postgraduate students and teachers in physics and electron optics, as well as researchers and scientists in academia and industry working in the field of electron optics, electron and ion microscopy and nanolithography.

- Offers a fully revised and expanded new edition based on the latest research developments in electron optics
- Written by the top experts in the field
- Covers every significant advance in electron optics since the subject originated
- Contains exceptionally complete and carefully selected references and notes
- Serves both as a reference and text

Postgraduate students and teachers in physics and electron optics; researchers and scientists in academia and industry working in the field of electron optics, electron and ion microscopy, and nanolithography

Preface

1. Introduction**PART I – CLASSICAL MECHANICS**

2. Relativistic Kinematics

3. Different Forms of Trajectory Equations

4. Variational Principles

5. Hamiltonian Optics**PART II – CALCULATION OF STATIC FIELDS**

6. Basic Concepts and Equations

7. Series Expansions

8. Boundary-Value Problems

9. Integral Equations

10. The Boundary-Element Method

11. The Finite-Difference Method (FDM)

12. The Finite-Element Method (FEM)

13. Field-Interpolation Techniques**PART III – THE PARAXIAL APPROXIMATION**

14. Introduction

15. Systems with an Axis of Rotational Symmetry

16. Gaussian Optics of Rotationally Symmetric Systems: Asymptotic Image Formation

17. Gaussian Optics of Rotationally Symmetric Systems: Real Cardinal Elements

18. Electron Mirrors

19. Quadrupole Lenses

20. Cylindrical Lenses**PART IV – ABERRATIONS**

21. Introduction

22. Perturbation Theory: General Formalism

23. The Relation Between Permitted Types of Aberration and System Symmetry

24. The Geometrical Aberrations of Round Lenses

25. Asymptotic Aberration Coefficients

26. Chromatic Aberrations

27. Aberration Matrices and the Aberrations of Lens Combinations

28. The Aberrations of Mirrors and Cathode Lenses

29. The Aberrations of Quadrupole Lenses and Octopoles

30. The Aberrations of Cylindrical Lenses

31. Parasitic Aberrations**PART V – DEFLECTION SYSTEMS**

32. Paraxial Properties of Deflection Systems

33. The Aberrations of Deflection Systems**PART VI – COMPUTER-AIDED ELECTRON OPTICS**

34. Numerical Calculation of Trajectories, Paraxial Properties and Aberrations

Notes and References

Index

- No. of pages: 728
- Language: English
- Edition: 2
- Published: October 29, 2017
- Imprint: Academic Press
- Paperback ISBN: 9780081022566
- eBook ISBN: 9780081022573

PH

Peter Hawkes obtained his M.A. and Ph.D (and later, Sc.D.) from the University of Cambridge, where he subsequently held Fellowships of Peterhouse and of Churchill College. From 1959 – 1975, he worked in the electron microscope section of the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, after which he joined the CNRS Laboratory of Electron Optics in Toulouse, of which he was Director in 1987. He was Founder-President of the European Microscopy Society and is a Fellow of the Microscopy and Optical Societies of America. He is a member of the editorial boards of several microscopy journals and serial editor of Advances in Electron Optics.

Affiliations and expertise

Founder-President of the European Microscopy Society and Fellow, Microscopy and Optical Societies of America; member of the editorial boards of several microscopy journals and Serial Editor, Advances in Electron Optics, FranceEK

Erwin Kasper studied physics at the Universities of Münster and Tübingen (Germany), where he obtained his PhD in 1965 and the habilitation to teach physics in 1969. After scientific spells in the University of Tucson, Arizona (1966) and in Munich (1970), he resumed his research and teaching in the Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tübingen, where he was later appointed professor. He lectured on general physics and especially on electron optics. The subject of his research was theoretical electron optics and related numerical methods on which he published numerous papers. After his retirement in 1997, he published a book on numerical field calculation (2001).

Affiliations and expertise

Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, GermanyRead *Principles of Electron Optics, Volume 1* on ScienceDirect