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Molecular Mechanisms In Cellular Growth and Differentiation
1st Edition - February 28, 1991
Editor: A.R. Bellve
9 7 8 - 0 - 3 2 3 - 1 5 2 7 3 - 0
Molecular Mechanisms in Cellular Growth and Differentiation describes the cellular differentiation and development. It emphasizes the pattern formation, specifically the genesis… Read more
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Molecular Mechanisms in Cellular Growth and Differentiation describes the cellular differentiation and development. It emphasizes the pattern formation, specifically the genesis of spatial relationships, among the parts of a vertebrate or invertebrate organism, embryonic or adult. Organized into five parts, this book deals with the major steps leading from growth factor-receptor interactions, through transduction and modulation mechanisms, to proliferative response. It also discusses the relation of growth factors and their receptors to oncogenes and to protooncogenes. It also elucidates the roles of growth factors and receptors in cell differentiation and development, particularly, in pattern formation. The homeotic systems regulated intracellularly and the two differentiation systems thought to involve sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins in conjunction with small molecules are also explored.
PrefacePart I Polypeptide Growth Factors and other Signals: Cell Membrane Receptors, Transduction Mechanisms and Proliferative Response 1 A Dual Binding Site Hypothesis of the Type I Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor Introduction Which Receptor Mediates the Actions of IGF-II? References 2 Insulin Action on Membrane Protein Recycling Introduction Membrane Protein Recycling Conclusions References 3 Growth-Factor and Oncogene-Mediated S6 Phosphorylation during the Mitogenic Response: A Novel S6 Kinase Stimulation of S6 Phosphorylation Activation of S6 Kinase Phosphatases Characteristics of the S6 Kinase Pathways Involved in S6 Phosphorylation References 4 Phosphorylation of pp60c-src Introduction Serine 12 Serine 17 Other Amino-Terminal Phosphorylations Tyrosine 416 Tyrosine 527 Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Treatment Neuronal pp60c-src pp60c-src and Polyomavirus Middle T Antigen Vanadate Treatment Elevation of pp60c-src Protein Kinase Activity in Transformed Cells Summary References 5 G Proteins May Exist as Polymeric Proteins: A Basis for the Disaggregation Theoryof Hormone Action Introduction Depolymerization Theory Current Thoughts on G Proteins Some Structural Aspects of G Proteins Pertussis Toxin Actions Effects of Detergents on G Proteins Signal Transduction and Cytoskeletal Elements Summary and Speculations References 6 Pleiotropic Functions of the Insulin Receptor Introduction Purification and Biological Characterization of the Insulin- Sensitive Enzyme Modulators The Enzyme Modulators Are Inositol Phosphate Glycans The Inositol Phosphate Glycan Enzyme Modulators Are Produced by an Insulin-Sensitive Phosphatidylinositol Glycan-Specific Phospholipase C Activity Turnover of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol in Insulin ActionReferences 7 Cooperative Regulation of Gene Expression in Liver Cells by Hormones and Extracellular Matrix Introduction Cell Culture Gene Expression in Normal Liver Gene Expression Studies in Hepatoma Cells Hypotheses on the Mechanisms of Matrix and Hormonal Regulation of Gene Expression: Delivery of Protein Hormones to the Nucleus by Proteoglycan/Glycosaminoglycan Carriers Summary References 8 Receptor-Ligand Interactions: Role in Cancer Invasion and Metastasis Introduction Basement Membrane and the Three-Step Hypothesis of Invasion Components of Basement Membrane Laminin Receptor Role of Laminin and Laminin Receptor in Tumor Cell Metastasis Monoclonal Antibodies to Human Laminin Receptor Isolation of Human Laminin Receptor cDNA Overlapping Domain of Laminin Receptor cDNA Inserts Nucleotide and Deduced Amino Acid Sequence of the 2H5 Epitope of Human Laminin Receptor Synthetic Peptides and the Putative Ligand Binding Domain of Laminin Receptor Expression of Laminin Receptor mRNA Conclusions References 9 Control of Cell Proliferation by Transforming Growth Factors Introduction Transforming Growth Factor-? Transforming Growth Factor-ß Autocrine Regulation of Epithelial Cells by Transforming Growth Factors-? and -ß References Part II Polypeptide Growth Factors and their Cell Membrane Receptors: Relation to Oncogenes 10 The EGF Receptor Protooneogene: Structure, Evolution of Properties of Receptor Mutants Introduction Structure of the EGF Receptor Properties of EGF Receptor Mutants References 11 Biological Effects of the v-erbA Oncogene in Transformation of Avian Erythroid Cells Biological Effects of the v-erhA and v-erbB Oncogenes Comparison of the v-erbA and c-erbA Effects of Mutant v-erbA Genes on Erythroblasts How Does v-erbA Contribute to Transformation of Erythroblasts? Conclusions References 12 ras Transformation of 3T3 Cells Induces Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Synthesis in Vitro and in Vivo Introduction Results Discussion References 13 Cellular Oncogenes Conferring Growth Factor Independence on NIH 3T3 Cells Introduction Results Discussion References 14 Potential Function of the mos Protooncogene in Germ Cell Differentiation and Early Development Introduction Expression of mos in Male Germ Cells Expression of mos in Oocytes Posttranscriptional Processing of mos in Eggs References Part III Polypeptide Growth Factors and their Cell Membrane Receptors: Role in Differentiation and Development 15 Pleiotypic Actions of the Seminiferous Growth Factor Introduction Expression of Mitogenic Activity Biochemical Characterization Two Testicular Cell Lines: TM3 Leydig and TM4 Sertoli Cells Proliferation of TM3 Leydig and TM4 Sertoli Cells Extracellular Accumulation of Sulfated Glycoprotein Synthesis of Specific Peptides Immunological Properties of Heparin-Binding Growth Factors Discussion References 16 Regulation of Blood Vessel Growth and Differentiation Introduction Growth and Development Embryonic Stem Cells as an Experimental Model System for Early Vascular Development Endothelial Cell Differentiation Concluding Remarks References 17 Vascular Endothelium: Role in Albumin Transport Multiplicity of Endothelial Functions General Organization Continuous Microvascular Endothelium Physiological Data Attempts at Structural-Functional Integration Perspectives References 18 A Growth Factor Homologous Gene Controlling Pattern Formation in Drosophila Introduction Overview of the Organization of the decapentaplegic Gene Contribution of the Hin Region to dpp Function Nature of the dpp Polypeptide References Part IV Sequence-Specific DNA-Binding Proteins: Role in Differentiation and Development 19 The Role of Master Regulatory Genes in Controlling Development Text References 20 engrailed, A Gene for All Segments Introduction The engrailed Gene Promoter The engrailed Protein Is a Phosphoprotein References 21 Sequence-Specific DNA-Binding Activities of Even-Skipped and Other Homeo Box Proteins in Drosophih Introduction Results Discussion Materials and Methods References 22 Identification and Characterization of Two Mouse Genes, EN-1 and EN-2, with Sequence Homology to the engrailed and invected Genes of Drosophih Introduction Results Discussion References 23 Structure and Developmental Expression of Murine Homeo Box Genes Introduction Results and Discussion References Part V Small Molecules in Differentiation and Development 24 Molecular Dissection of Pattern Formation in Vertebrate Limbs: Concepts and Experimental Approaches Background Retinoic Acid Mimics ZPA Tissue and Induces Pattern Duplications in a Highly Specific Way Retinoic Acid Can Induce Digit Formation in the Absence of ZPA Tissue Limb Buds Contain Endogenous Retinoic Acid Future Problems References 25 Differentiation of a Multipotent Human Intestinal Cell Line: Expression of Villin, a Structural Component of Brush Borders The Intestinal Epithelium: A Model System for Study of Cell Diffferentiation and the Development of a Polarized Cytoskeleton A Pluripotent Human Intestinal Cell Line That Can Be Induced to Differentiate in Culture Organization of Intestinal Brush Border Cytoskeleton Villin, a Calcium-Regulated Actin-Binding Protein Villin Is an Organ-Specific Marker in Adults and Embryos Villin Expression during Intestinal Differentiation Summary and Conclusions ReferencesIndex