Metal Resources and Energy was initially aimed at exploring the future availability of metals and the energy required to produce them. During the detailed planning of the book, the authors decided to extend the remit to consider fuel use in relation to resources and future availability. In order to explore this relationship a framework was established which provided an agenda of topics to examine. In the process of systematically working through this agenda a deeper understanding of resource issues and some new insights were obtained. This book develops a framework for assessing the future availability of metals by first reviewing the activities associated with the production of metals. These can be divided into four broad categories: exploration and establishment, mining, concentrating, and smelting and refining. It then examines factors such as energy economics, forecasting issues, resources and reserves estimation, and trends in technical efficiency. Subsequent chapters deal with the evaluation of fuel use in metals production; the secondary production of metals from scrap and other waste materials; non-technical issues that are potential sources of short-term crises; and other applications of energy data. This book is intended for final year students of engineering, geology, and economics, all of whom will find all the topics covered relevant to their studies. It attempts to convey the essentials of resource economics, metal production technology, energy analysis, and those aspects of geology and geochemistry which are pertinent to a study of resource issues. The full breadth of topics is covered at a depth which is comprehensible to students from other disciplines.