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Mechanics and Chemistry in Lubrication
1st Edition - August 1, 1985
Authors: A. Dorinson, K.C. Ludema
9 7 8 - 0 - 0 8 - 0 8 7 5 7 3 - 6
Although it is widely recognized that friction, wear and lubrication are linked together in a single interdisciplinary complex of scientific learning and technological practice,… Read more
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Although it is widely recognized that friction, wear and lubrication are linked together in a single interdisciplinary complex of scientific learning and technological practice, fragmented and specialized approaches still predominate. In this book, the authors examine lubrication from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. They demonstrate that once the treatment of lubrication is released from the confines of the fluid film concept, this interdisciplinary approach comes into full play. Tribological behavior in relation to lubrication is then examined from two major points of view: one is mechanical, not only with respect to the properties and behavior of the lubricant but also of the surfaces being lubricated. The other is chemical and encompasses the chemistry of the lubricant, the surfaces and the ambient surroundings. It is in the emphasis on the interaction of the basic mechanical and chemical processes in lubrication that this book differs from conventional treatments.
Contents1. Introduction 1.1. What Is Friction 1.2. Friction and Wear 1.3. Tribology 1.4. Some Further Statements about Lubrication References2. Simple Hydrodynamic Theory: The Reynolds Equation in Two Dimensions 2.1. Beauchamp Tower's Bearing Experiments 2.2. A n Engineering Derivation of the Two-Dimensional Reynolds Equation 2.3. The Reynolds Equation in Use: The Plane Slider Bearing 2.4. Energy Losses in the Hydrodynamic Lubrication of Bearings 2.5. The Pivoted Slider Bearing: Design Variables 2.6. The Full Journal Bearing 2.6.1. Application of the Reynolds Equation to the Full Journal' Bearing 2.6.2. Friction in the Full Journal Bearing References Appendix 3. Some Advanced Aspects of Hydrodynamic Lubrication 3.1. The Classical Fluid 3.1.1. Stress Analysis of a Fluid 3.1.2. The Simple Visccus Fluid 3.2. The Navier-Stokes Equations 3.3. The Generalized Reynolds Equation 3.4. Squeeze Films 3.5. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication 3.5.1. Elastohydrodynamic Theory 3.5.2. Some Elastohydrodynamic Solutions: Line Contact 3.5.3. Elastohydrodynamic Solutions for Point Contact 3.5.4. Experimental Observations of Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication References 4. The Nature and Properties of Liquids 4.1. The Properties of Liquids and Lubrication 4.2. Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Viscosity 4.3. Capillary Viscometry 4.3.1. Newtonian Flow through a Capillary 4.3.2. Non-Newtonian Capillary Flow 4.3.3. Sources of Error in Capillary Viscometry 4.4. Capillary Viscometers 4.4.1. The Cannon-Fenske Viscometer 4.4.2. Capillary Viscometry Under Pressure 4.5. Rotational Viscometry and Viscometers 4.5.1. The Couette Viscometer 4.5.2. The Cone-and-Plate Viscometer 4.6. Rolling-Ball and Falling-Sinker Viscometers 4.7. Orifice Viscometers 4.8. Influence of Temperature and Pressure on Viscosity 4.8.1. The Walther Equation and ASTM Viscosity-Temperature Charts 4.8.2. The Viscosity Index 4.8.3. Pressure and Viscosity 4.9. Theories of Viscosity and the Molecular Structure of Liquids 4.10. Compressibility and Bulk Modulus 4.11. The Role of Compressibility in Lubrication References 5. Gases as Lubricating Fluids 5.1. Fundamentals of Gas Film Lubrication 5.2. Gas-Lubricated Bearings 5.3. Properties of Gases References 6. Measurement of Fluid Film Thickness and Detection of Film Failure 6.1. Electrical Methods 6.1.1. Film Thickness by Electrical Resistance 6.1.2. Film Thickness by Electrical Capacitance 6.2. ODtical Interferometry 6.3. X-Ray Transmission 6.4. Summarizing Discussion of Film Thickness Measurement 6.5. The Meaning of Film Failure 6.6. Electrical Methods of Detecting Film Failure 6.7. Detection of Fluid Film Failure by Friction or by Examination of Surface Condition References 7. Friction: Phenomenology. Detection and Measurement 7.1. Basic Phenomenology of the Friction of Solid Bodies 7.2. Simple Behavioral Aspects of Static and Kinetic Friction 7.3. Experimental Arrangements for Detection and Measurement of Friction 7.3.1. Devices Utilizing Elastic Deflection 7.3.2. Dead-Weight Tangential Traction Devices 7.3.3. Inclined Plane Method for Static Friction 7.3.4. Damping of Oscillatory Motion References 8. Friction: Mechanisms and Analysis 8.1. A Simple Mechanism for the Friction of Solid Metallic Bodies 8.2. Extension of the Adhesive-Junction Model for Friction 8.3. Intermittent Motion in Frictional Sliding: Stick-Slip Oscillation 8.4. Frictionally Induced Quasiharmonic Vibration 8.5. The Nature of Static and Kinetic Friction 8.6. Sliding Speed and Friction 8.7. Non-Adhesional Mechanisms for Friction References9. Lubricated Friction 9.1. The Contact and Friction of Clean Surfaces 9.2. The Influence of Oxides on the Friction of Metals 9.3. Lubricated Friction: The Behavioristic View 9.4. A Theoretical View of Lubricated Friction References 10. Lubricant Additive Action . I. Basic Categories and Mechanisms 10.1. What is a Lubricant Additive 10.2. Classification and Nomenclature 10.3. Interposed Adsorption Films 10.3.1. Simple Absorbed Films 10.3.2. Chemisorbed Films 10.4. The Additive Action of Adsorbed Films 10.4.1. Durability of Films 10.4.2. Influence of Temperature on Adsorbed Films and Friction 10.4.3. Thermodynamics of Adsorption and Lubrication 10.4.4. Other Physicochemical Influences in Adsorbed Film Behavior 10.5. Chemically Deposited Films 10.5.1. Polymeric Condensation Films 10.5.2. Surface Resin ("Friction Polymer") 10.6. Interaction Films 10.7. Asperity Junction-Growth Inhibition References 11. Lubricant Additive Action. II. Chemical Reactivity and Additive Functionality 11.1. A Basic View of Reactions between Additives and Metal Surfaces 11.2. Chemical Structures in Additives and Mechanisms of Additive Action 11.2.1. Sulfur Compounds: Chemical Reactions 11.2.2. Sulfur Compounds: Lubricant Additive Action 11.2.3. Chlorine Compounds: Chemical Reactions 11.2.4. Chlorine Compounds: Lubricant Additive Action 11.2.5. PhosDhorus COmDOundS: Chemical Reactions and Additive Action 11.2.6. Phosphorus and Other Key Elements: Dithiophosphates (Phosphorodithioates) etc 11.3. The Action of Multicomponent Additives 11.3.1. Multicomponent Additives with Sulfur and Chlorine 11.3.2. Multicomponent Additives with Phosphorus and Chlorine 11.3.3. Sulfur and Fatty Esters in Multicomponent Additives 11.3.4. Interference Effects with Multicomponent Additives References12. Contact of Solid Bodies 12.1. Surfaces and Surface Roughness 12.1.1. Descriptive Surface Topography 12.1.2. The Metrics of Surface Roughness 12.2. Contact and Adhesion 12.2.1. Simple Deformation Models of Contact 12.2.2. Adhesion and Separation 12.3. Characterization of Surfaces from Profile Data 12.4. Surface Topography and the Mechanics of Asperity Contact 12.5. Experimental Studies of Contact and Adhesion 12.6. The Tribological Significance of Contact and Adhesion References 13. Wear: Basic Principles and General Behavior 13.1. A Basic Definition of Wear 13.2. Phenomenological Wear 13.2.1. Wear in Pure Sliding 13.2.2. Mixed Sliding and Rolling 13.2.3. Pure Rolling 13.2.4. Impinging Contact 13.2.5. Dry and Lubricated Wear 13.2.6. Wear of Non-Metals 13.3. Mechanistic Processes in Phenomenological Wear 13.3.1. Adhesion and Transfer 13.3.2. Plastic Deformation Processes 13.3.3. Fatigue Mechanisms 13.3.4. Chemical Reaction Processes 13.3.5. Combinations of Mechanistic Processes 13.4. Nomenclature 13.5. Wear Models 13.5.1. Wear Models and Asperity Contact 13.5.2. Models for Constant Wear Rate 13.5.3. Wear with Variable Rate 13.5.4. Geometrical Influences in Wear Models 13.5.5. Physical Parameters in Wear Models 13.6. Catastrophic Wear Damage References14. Aspects of Lubricated Wear 14.1. Lubricated Wear by Penetration of the Fluid Film 14.1.1. Wear and Partial Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication 14.1.2. Wear and Mixohydrodynamic Lubrication 14.2. Compounded Lubricants and Wear 14.2.1. Reaction-Rate Theories of Wear in the Presence of Compounded Lubricants 14.2.2. Reaction Rate Processes and Phenomenological Wear 14.3. The Control of Scuffing References 15. Temperature Effects in Friction. Wear and Lubrication 15.1. Interfacial Temperature and Rubbing 15.1.1. A Descriptive Model for Interfacial Temperature in Rubbing 15.1.2. Calculation of Interfacial Temperature by Continuum Heat Conduction Theory 15.1.3. A Stochastic Model for Interfacial Temperature Generated at Discrete Sites 15.2. Experimental Observations of Interfacial Temperature 15.2.1. The Dynamic Thermocouple 15.2.2. The Embedded Thermocouple 15.2.3. The Strip Thermistor 15.2.4. Emission of Infrared Radiation 15.3. Ambient Temperature Effects 15.4. Effects of Temperature on Friction and Wear 15.5. Effects of Temperature on Lubrication and Lubricants References 16. Petroleum Lubricating Oils 16.1. Processing of Petroleum Lubricants 16.2. Nomenclature and Classification of Petroleum Oils 16.3. Structure in Lubricating Oils by Direct Techniques 16.3.1. Extraction, Chromatographic Adsorption, Distillation and Mass Spectrography 16.3.2. Distillation, Extraction, Chromatographic Adsorption, Thermal Diffusion and Mass Spectrography 16.3.3. Mass Spectrography of Refinery-Run Fractions 16.3.4. Nature of the Alkyl and Aromatic Structures 16.4. Type Structures in Lubricating Oils by Correlation with Physical Properties: Indirect Methods 16.5. Type Structures in the Performance of Petroleum Oils as Lubricants References 17. Non-Petroleum Liquids as Lubricants 17.1. Chemical Types and Structures 17.2. Chemical Types and Properties of Synthetic Lubricants 17.3. Applications of Synthetic Lubricants References 18. Lubricating Grease 18.1. Basic Aspects of Lubricating Grease Structure 18.2. The Manufacture of Lubricating Grease 18.3. Further Consideration of Grease Structure 18.3.1. Bleeding and Permeability 18.3.2. Consistency and Penetration 18.4. The Flow of Greases 18.5. Grease as a Lubricant in Service References 19. Lubrication by Solids 19.1. Classification and Terminology 19.2. Layer-Lattice Inorganic Solids as Lubricants 19.2.1. Molybdenum Disulfide as a Luricating Lamellar Solid 19.2.2. Graphite as a Solid Lubricant 19.2.3. Graphite Fluoride as a Solid Lubricant 19.2.4. Boron Nitride as a Solid Lubricant 19.2.5. Other Layer-Lattice Inorganic Solids as Lubricants 19.3. Lubrication by Non-Lamellar Inorganic Solids and by Soft Metals 19.4. Organic Solids as Lubricants 19.5. The Technological Utilization of Solid Lubricants References Author Index Subject Index