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Skip to main content# Mass Transfer and Absorbers

## International Series of Monographs in Chemical Engineering

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Preface

Nomenclature

1. General Introduction

1. General Principles of Diffusional Mass Transfer

2. Absorption, Stripping

3. Various Ways of Expressing Concentration

4. Equilibrium between Gas and Liquid Phases

5. Interphase Equilibrium and the Phase Rule

6. Non-equilibrium System

7. Thermodynamic Interpretation of Interphase Equilibrium

a. Basic Relations

b. Fugacity of the Gaseous Phase

c. Fugacity of the Liquid Phase

d. Equilibrium States

8. Kinds of Mass-transfer Mechanisms

a. Diffusion

b. Convection

Bibliography

2. Steady-State Mass Transfer by Diffusion

1. Diffusion in the Gaseous Phase

2. Particular Cases of Diffusion in the Gaseous Phase

a. Diffusion of One Component through an Inert Component

b. Equimolar Counterdiffusion

c. Diffusion of One Component through an Inert Multi-component Mixture

d. Multi-component Diffusion in Various Directions

e. Summary of the Equations Obtained for Rate of Diffusion

3. Diffusion in the Liquid Phase

4. Generalized Treatment of Mass Transport by Diffusion

5. Driving Modulus of Diffusion ΔπA

6. Diffusivity (Coefficient of Diffusion)

a. General Discussion

b. Diffusivity in the Gas Phase

c. Diffusivity in the Liquid Phase

Bibliography

3. Mass Transfer (In One Phase)

1. Convection

a. General Discussion

b. Basic Approach to the Transfer of Mass

c. The Driving Modulus of Mass Transfer

d. Comparison with other Approaches to Mass Transfer

e. Important Cases of Mass Transfer

A. Mass Transfer in Forced Flow

2. Mass Transfer in Forced Turbulent Flow (Gas Phase)

3. Mass Transfer in Forced Laminar Flow (Gas Phase). Flow through a Tube

B. Mass Transfer in Unforced Flow

4. Mass Transfer in the Gravity Flow of a Liquid (Liquid Phase)

5. Mass Transfer in Free Flow (Natural Convection)

6. Mass Transfer for a Gas Bubbling through a Liquid

7. Mass Transfer and Falling Drops

8. Differential Equation for Mass Diffusion and the Similarity between Mass Transfer Processes

Bibliography

4. Design of Mass Transfer Equipment and Related Problems

1. The Mass Balance of a Mass Exchanger and the Operating Line

2. Mass Transfer between Phases (Interphase Mass Transfer)

a. The Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient and Overall Driving Modulus

b. Special Cases with Regard to the Kind of Diffusion

c. General Conclusions

d. Cases when the Mass Transfer Resistance in One Phase is Absent or Negligible

e. Mean Driving Modulus of Interphase Mass Transfer

3. Evaluation of the Active Mass Transfer Area and the Volume of Packing

4. Effectiveness of Wetting and its Calculation for a Packed Tower

a. Effectiveness of Wetting

b. Calculation of a Packed Exchanger

5. Method of Calculating the Interphase Mass Transfer with the Use of the Theoretical Driving Force ΔpA

a. Interphase Mass Transfer of One Component in the Presence of Inert Components

b. Two Directional, Equimolar Interphase Mass Transfer

c. Multi-component Interphase Mass Transfer in Various Directions

6. Methods in which the "Height of a Transfer Unit" is Used

a. Generalized Approach

b. Particular Treatment of Interphase Mass Transfer in the Presence of Inert Components, Using the Mole Ratios yΑ, xΑ

c. Particular Treatment of Interphase Mass Transfer in the Presence of Inert Components, Using the Mole Fractions xA, yA

d. Particular Treatment of Interphase Mass Transfer in the Presence of Inert Components, Using the Mass Ratios UA, WA

e. Particular Treatment of Equimolar Interphase Mass Transfer, Using the Concentrations xA, yA

f. General Discussion

7. Method Using the Absorption or Stripping Factor

a. General Discussion

b. Absorption

c. Stripping

d. Plate Efficiency

e. Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate

8. Computation of a Plate Column without Using the Theoretical Plate Concept

9. Heat of Solution (Heat of Mixing)

10. Values of Mass Transfer Coefficients for Common Cases

11. Analogy between Mass and Heat Transfer

Bibliography

5. Absorption Accompanied by a Chemical Reaction

1. General Discussion

2. Theory of Absorption with a Simultaneous Chemical Reaction

3. Very Rapid Irreversible Chemical Reaction

4. Reaction Proceeding at any Given Rate, and Starting at the Interface

a. Rate of Reaction

b. Equation for Mass Transfer

c. Summing of Diffusional Resistances

d. Concentration Profile and the Degree of Conversion

e. Discussion on the Mass Transfer Coefficient

f. Practical Application of the Theory

Bibliography

6. Hydrodynamic Problems

1. Flow of Gas and Liquid through a Packed Tower

a. General Discussion

b. Pressure Drop on a Dry Packing

c. Pressure Drop on a Wetted Packing

d. Flooding in Packed Columns

e. Hold-up of Liquid in the Packing

2. Hydraulics of the Bubbling Process

a. General Discussion

b. Bubble Diameter

c. Critical Rate of Flow

d. Velocity of Rise of Bubbles

e. Surface Area for Mass Transfer in the Bubbling Process

f. Hydraulics of a Bubble-cap Plate

g. Hydraulics of Turbogrid Trays and Sieve Trays

3. Hydraulics of the Gravity Flow of a Liquid Down a Wall

4. Hydraulics of Spraying

Bibliography

7. Some Practical Indications

1. Economic Flow Velocity

2. Basic Types of Mass Transfer Equipment

3. The Choice between a Plate and a Packed Column

4. Mechanical Features of Packed Tower Design

5. Mechanical Features of Plate Tower Design

6. Mechanical Features of Spray Tower Design

a. Spray Nozzles

b. Spray Chambers

Bibliography

Supplement

General Bibliography

Index

Other Titles in the Series

### P. V. Danckwerts

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1st Edition - January 1, 1966

Author: T. Hobler

Editor: P. V. Danckwerts

eBook ISBN:

9 7 8 - 1 - 4 8 3 1 - 5 5 6 7 - 8

Mass Transfer and Absorbers deals with absorption and mass transfer processes and the factors to consider in designing absorbers. Calculations are supported by a uniform,… Read more

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Mass Transfer and Absorbers deals with absorption and mass transfer processes and the factors to consider in designing absorbers. Calculations are supported by a uniform, generalized process driving force, complying with Maxwell's equation, and the coefficients are made as independent as possible in terms of the kind of diffusion and of the values of the concentrations. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an overview of the general principles of diffusional mass transfer, absorption and stripping, and equilibrium between gas and liquid phases. Steady-state mass transfer by diffusion is then discussed, along with mass transfer in a single phase (forced flow and unforced flow). Subsequent chapters explore design considerations for mass transfer equipment and related problems; adsorption accompanied by a chemical reaction; and problems relating to hydrodynamics. The final chapter is devoted to some practical issues, including economic flow velocity and mechanical features of packed, plate, and spray tower designs. This book is intended for practicing designers and engineers.

Preface

Nomenclature

1. General Introduction

1. General Principles of Diffusional Mass Transfer

2. Absorption, Stripping

3. Various Ways of Expressing Concentration

4. Equilibrium between Gas and Liquid Phases

5. Interphase Equilibrium and the Phase Rule

6. Non-equilibrium System

7. Thermodynamic Interpretation of Interphase Equilibrium

a. Basic Relations

b. Fugacity of the Gaseous Phase

c. Fugacity of the Liquid Phase

d. Equilibrium States

8. Kinds of Mass-transfer Mechanisms

a. Diffusion

b. Convection

Bibliography

2. Steady-State Mass Transfer by Diffusion

1. Diffusion in the Gaseous Phase

2. Particular Cases of Diffusion in the Gaseous Phase

a. Diffusion of One Component through an Inert Component

b. Equimolar Counterdiffusion

c. Diffusion of One Component through an Inert Multi-component Mixture

d. Multi-component Diffusion in Various Directions

e. Summary of the Equations Obtained for Rate of Diffusion

3. Diffusion in the Liquid Phase

4. Generalized Treatment of Mass Transport by Diffusion

5. Driving Modulus of Diffusion ΔπA

6. Diffusivity (Coefficient of Diffusion)

a. General Discussion

b. Diffusivity in the Gas Phase

c. Diffusivity in the Liquid Phase

Bibliography

3. Mass Transfer (In One Phase)

1. Convection

a. General Discussion

b. Basic Approach to the Transfer of Mass

c. The Driving Modulus of Mass Transfer

d. Comparison with other Approaches to Mass Transfer

e. Important Cases of Mass Transfer

A. Mass Transfer in Forced Flow

2. Mass Transfer in Forced Turbulent Flow (Gas Phase)

3. Mass Transfer in Forced Laminar Flow (Gas Phase). Flow through a Tube

B. Mass Transfer in Unforced Flow

4. Mass Transfer in the Gravity Flow of a Liquid (Liquid Phase)

5. Mass Transfer in Free Flow (Natural Convection)

6. Mass Transfer for a Gas Bubbling through a Liquid

7. Mass Transfer and Falling Drops

8. Differential Equation for Mass Diffusion and the Similarity between Mass Transfer Processes

Bibliography

4. Design of Mass Transfer Equipment and Related Problems

1. The Mass Balance of a Mass Exchanger and the Operating Line

2. Mass Transfer between Phases (Interphase Mass Transfer)

a. The Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient and Overall Driving Modulus

b. Special Cases with Regard to the Kind of Diffusion

c. General Conclusions

d. Cases when the Mass Transfer Resistance in One Phase is Absent or Negligible

e. Mean Driving Modulus of Interphase Mass Transfer

3. Evaluation of the Active Mass Transfer Area and the Volume of Packing

4. Effectiveness of Wetting and its Calculation for a Packed Tower

a. Effectiveness of Wetting

b. Calculation of a Packed Exchanger

5. Method of Calculating the Interphase Mass Transfer with the Use of the Theoretical Driving Force ΔpA

a. Interphase Mass Transfer of One Component in the Presence of Inert Components

b. Two Directional, Equimolar Interphase Mass Transfer

c. Multi-component Interphase Mass Transfer in Various Directions

6. Methods in which the "Height of a Transfer Unit" is Used

a. Generalized Approach

b. Particular Treatment of Interphase Mass Transfer in the Presence of Inert Components, Using the Mole Ratios yΑ, xΑ

c. Particular Treatment of Interphase Mass Transfer in the Presence of Inert Components, Using the Mole Fractions xA, yA

d. Particular Treatment of Interphase Mass Transfer in the Presence of Inert Components, Using the Mass Ratios UA, WA

e. Particular Treatment of Equimolar Interphase Mass Transfer, Using the Concentrations xA, yA

f. General Discussion

7. Method Using the Absorption or Stripping Factor

a. General Discussion

b. Absorption

c. Stripping

d. Plate Efficiency

e. Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate

8. Computation of a Plate Column without Using the Theoretical Plate Concept

9. Heat of Solution (Heat of Mixing)

10. Values of Mass Transfer Coefficients for Common Cases

11. Analogy between Mass and Heat Transfer

Bibliography

5. Absorption Accompanied by a Chemical Reaction

1. General Discussion

2. Theory of Absorption with a Simultaneous Chemical Reaction

3. Very Rapid Irreversible Chemical Reaction

4. Reaction Proceeding at any Given Rate, and Starting at the Interface

a. Rate of Reaction

b. Equation for Mass Transfer

c. Summing of Diffusional Resistances

d. Concentration Profile and the Degree of Conversion

e. Discussion on the Mass Transfer Coefficient

f. Practical Application of the Theory

Bibliography

6. Hydrodynamic Problems

1. Flow of Gas and Liquid through a Packed Tower

a. General Discussion

b. Pressure Drop on a Dry Packing

c. Pressure Drop on a Wetted Packing

d. Flooding in Packed Columns

e. Hold-up of Liquid in the Packing

2. Hydraulics of the Bubbling Process

a. General Discussion

b. Bubble Diameter

c. Critical Rate of Flow

d. Velocity of Rise of Bubbles

e. Surface Area for Mass Transfer in the Bubbling Process

f. Hydraulics of a Bubble-cap Plate

g. Hydraulics of Turbogrid Trays and Sieve Trays

3. Hydraulics of the Gravity Flow of a Liquid Down a Wall

4. Hydraulics of Spraying

Bibliography

7. Some Practical Indications

1. Economic Flow Velocity

2. Basic Types of Mass Transfer Equipment

3. The Choice between a Plate and a Packed Column

4. Mechanical Features of Packed Tower Design

5. Mechanical Features of Plate Tower Design

6. Mechanical Features of Spray Tower Design

a. Spray Nozzles

b. Spray Chambers

Bibliography

Supplement

General Bibliography

Index

Other Titles in the Series

- No. of pages: 532
- Language: English
- Edition: 1
- Published: January 1, 1966
- Imprint: Pergamon
- eBook ISBN: 9781483155678

PD

Affiliations and expertise

University of Cambridge, UK