Life Sciences and Space Research, Volume XVII contains the proceedings of the Open Meeting of the Working Group on Space Biology of the Twenty-first Plenary Meeting of COSPAR, held in Innsbruck, Austria, from May 29 to June 10, 1978 and of the Symposium on Gravitational Physiology which also took place in Innsbruck, Austria, on June 2 and 3, 1978. The papers review the results of research in the life sciences with respect to space biology, including chemical data returned from the Viking Lander experiments. The engineering design of biologically closed ecological systems suitable for very long term space flight or space colonies is also described. This volume is comprised of 41 chapters and begins with a discussion on closed regenerative life support systems for space travel and their implications for ecological science. Subsequent chapters examine closed ecology in space from a bioengineering perspective; technology requirements for nonterrestrial ecosystems; carbon suboxide polymer as an explanation for the wave of darkening observed on Mars; and volcanism and soil mercury on Mars, along with their consequences for terrestrial microorganisms. The next sections focus on the biology of extreme environments such as Central Antarctica, radiation biology in space, and gravitational physiology in relation to humans and animals. This book will be of interest to space scientists, space biologists, and those engaged in the life sciences, space research, molecular biophysics, biochemistry, and physiology.