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Introduction to Modern Biochemistry 3e
4th Edition - January 1, 1975
Author: P Karlson
9 7 8 - 0 - 3 2 3 - 1 6 2 1 9 - 7
Introduction to Modern Biochemistry, Fourth Edition provides a better understanding of the chemical background of biological phenomena. The book presents an introduction and a… Read more
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Introduction to Modern Biochemistry, Fourth Edition provides a better understanding of the chemical background of biological phenomena. The book presents an introduction and a survey of the facts and concepts of biochemistry. The text is intended to be an instructional material. Topics of general importance, such as the generation and utilization of free energy, the role of genes in protein and enzyme synthesis, and the importance of the submicroscopic structure of the cell in biochemical reactions, are emphasized. No distinction between descriptive biochemistry and dynamic biochemistry are made, for the sake of simplicity and better comprehension of concepts presented in the book. Students, biochemists, biologists, pharmacists, and medical practitioners will find this book as a good reference.
PrefaceChapter I Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry 1. Hydrocarbons as Parent Substances 2. Functional Groups 3. Polymeric Compounds 4. Isomerisms 5. Reactions with Biochemical Significance BibliographyChapter II Amino Acids 1. Chemical Properties 2. Individual Amino Acids 3. Separation of Amino Acids BibliographyChapter III Peptides 1. Structure and Nomenclature 2. Determination of Amino Acid Sequence in Peptides 3. Naturally Occurring Peptides BibliographyChapter IV Proteins 1. Structure of Proteins 2. The Sequence of Amino Acids 3. Principles of Chain Conformation 4. Conformation of Scleroproteins 5. Conformation of Globular Proteins 6. Molecular Weights of Proteins 7. Colloidal Nature of Proteins 8. Purification and Check of Purity of Proteins 9. Classification of Globular Proteins 10. Plasma Proteins BibliographyChapter V Enzymes and Biocatalysis 1. Chemical Nature of Enzymes 2. Chemical Equilibria and Chemical Energetics 3. Catalysts and Enzymes 4. Dynamic Equilibria and the Steady State 5. Energetic Coupling and Energy-Rich Compounds 6. Specificity of Enzyme Catalysis 7. Enzyme Kinetics 8. Conditions for Enzyme Activity 9. The Mechanism of Enzyme Catalysis 10. Classification and Nomenclature of Enzymes BibliographyChapter VI Coenzymes 1. Coenzymes and Prosthetic Groups 2. Coenzymes and Vitamins 3. Structure and Classification of Coenzymes 4. Coenzymes of the Oxidoreductascs 5. Adenosine Triphosphate as Coenzyme 6. Coenzymes of C1 Metabolism 7. Coenzymes of C2 Metabolism 8. Further Group-Transferring Coenzymes 9. Coenzymes of Lyases, Isomerases, and Ligases BibliographyChapter VII Nucleic Acids and Protein Biosynthesis 1. Bases, Nucleosides, and Nucleotides 2. Biosynthesis and Degradation of Nucleotides 3. Structure of Nucleic Acids 4. Deoxyribonucleic Acid as Carrier of Genetic Information 5. The Transfer of Information: Biosynthesis of DNA and RNA 6. Protein Biosynthesis 7. Mode of Action of Genes 8. Biochemical Evolution 9. Biochemistry of Viruses 10. Nucleic Acid-Cleaving Enzymes and Phosphatases BibliographyChapter VIII Metabolism of Proteins 1. Proteolytic Enzymes 2. Endopeptidases 3. Exopeptidases and Dipeptidases 4. Outline of the Metabolism of Amino Acids 5. Decarboxylation of Amino Acids 6. Transamination 7. Deamination 8. Urea Cycle 9. Fate of the Carbon Skeleton of Amino Acids 10. Degradation to Activated Fatty Acids: Oxidative Decarboxylation 11. Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids 12. Amino Acids Supplying C1 Fragments 13. Ketoglutaric Acid or C4-Dicarboxylic Acid-Supplying Amino Acids BibliographyChapter IX Porphyrins and Hemins 1. Biosynthesis of the Porphyrin System 2. Chemical Constitution of Heme 3. Multiplicity of Porphyrin Catalysis 4. Significance and Reactions of the Blood Pigment 5. Degradation of Blood Pigment 6. Cytochromes, Catalases, and Peroxidases. Chlorophyll BibliographyChapter X Biological Oxidation—Metabolism of Oxygen 1. Combustion and Biological Oxidation 2. Oxidation as Loss of Electrons 3. The Redox Potential 4. The Respiratory Chain 5. Oxidative Phosphorylation (Respiratory Chain Phosphorylation) 6. Other Oxygen-Activating Enzymes BibliographyChapter XI Carbon Dioxide Formation in the Citrate Cycle 1. Significance of the Citrate Cycle 2. The Individual Steps 3. Energy Yield of the Citrate Cycle 4. Relations to Synthetic Tasks. Glyoxylate Cycle BibliographyChapter XII Fats and Fat Metabolism 1. Chemical Composition of Fats 2. Fats as Depot Material 3. ß-Oxidation of Fatty Acids 4. Metabolism of Unsaturated and Branched-Chain Fatty Acids 5. Formation of Acetoacetate — "Ketogenesis" 6. Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids BibliographyChapter XIII Phospholipids, Glycolipids, and Membranes 1. Structural Features 2. Biosynthesis and Structure of Glycerophosphatides 3. Sphingosines and Sphingomyelins 4. Glycolipids 5. Biological Membranes BibliographyChapter XIV Isoprenoid Lipids: Steroids and Carotenoids 1. Biosynthesis of Cholesterol 2. Nomenclature and Stereochemistry of the Steroids 3. Sterols and Plant Steroids 4. Vitamin D 5. Bile Acids 6. Steroid Hormones 7. Carotenoids 8. Vitamin A and Visual Purple 9. Polyprenols and Polyprenyl Quinones BibliographyChapter XV Simple Sugars, Monosaccharides 1. Nomenclature and Definitions 2. Hemiacetal Formulas 3. General Reactions of Monosaccharides 4. The Individual Sugars 5. Interconversion of Sugars 6. The Pentose Phosphate Cycle 7. Glycolysis and Alcohol Fermentation 8. The Metabolism of Fructose 9. Aerobic Carbohydrate Breakdown 10. Resynthesis of Glucose: Gluconeogenesis BibliographyChapter XVI Photosynthesis 1. Importance of Photosynthesis 2. The Photosynthetic Apparatus and Light Reactions 3. Binding of CO2 and Reduction to Carbohydrate 4. Assimilation of Nitrogen BibliographyChapter XVII Glycosides, Oligosaccharides, Polysaccharides 1. The Glycosidic Bond 2. Disaccharides 3. Enzymatic Cleavage of Oligosaccharides 4. Biosynthesis of Glycosides and Oligosaccharides 5. Polysaccharides: Homoglycans 6. Enzymatic Breakdown of Polysaccharides 7. Heteroglycans 8. Glycoproteins BibliographyChapter XVIII Topochemistry of the Cell 1. The Nucleus of the Cell 2. The Endoplasmic Reticulum 3. Mitochondria 4. The Cytoplasmic Space (Cytosol) BibliographyChapter XIX Regulatory Mechanisms and Correlations in Intermediary Metabolism 1. Principles of Metabolic Regulation 2. Metabolism of Carbohydrates 3. Metabolism of Fatty Acids 4. Citrate Cycle and Respiratory Chain 5. Metabolism of Proteins 6. The Common Pool of Intermediary Metabolism BibliographyChapter XX Hormones 1. Principles of Hormonal Regulation 2. Adrenocortical Hormones 3. Gonadal Hormones 4. Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla 5. The Hormone of the Pineal Gland 6. Thyroid Hormones 7. The Parathyroid Hormone 8. The Pancreatic Hormones 9. Hypophyseal and Hypothalamic Hormones 10. Further Proteohormones 11. Hormone Regulation of Blood Glucose 12. Hormonal Control of the Menstrual Cycle 13. Tissue Hormones 14. Hormones of Invertebrates 15. Pheromones 16. Growth Substances of Plants BibliographyChapter XXI Mineral Metabolism 1. Water Balance 2. Water as Solvent 3. Active Transport 4. Acid-Base Equilibrium 5. Metabolism of Alkali and of Chloride 6. Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism 7. Iron and Zinc BibliographyChapter XXII Nutrition and Vitamins 1. Caloric Value and ATP Yield 2. Essential Food Components 3. Vitamins 4. Fat-Soluble Vitamins 5. Water-Soluble Vitamins BibliographyChapter XXIII Special Biochemical Functions of Certain Organs 1. The Digestive Tract 2. The Liver 3. Blood 4. Kidney and Urine 5. Other Excretion Products 6. Connective and Supportive Tissue 7. Biochemistry of Muscles 8. The Biochemistry of the Nervous System 9. Development, Differentiation, and Malignant Degeneration 10. Summary BibliographyAppendixList of Abbreviations Frequently Used in Biochemical Literature 1. Alphabetic List 2. Systematic List Chronological Table of Important Biochemical DiscoveriesSubject Index