This volume aims to interest students of modern economic theory in the history of economics. For this purpose, past economic theories are considered from the point of view of current economic theories and translated, if possible and necessary, into mathematical models. It is emphasized that the currently dominating mainstream theory is not the only possible theory, and that there are many past theories which have important significance to the advancement of economic theory in the present situation, or will have it in the near future.After a brief discussion on the history of economics from the point of view of contemporary economic theory, a bird's-eye view of the historical development of economics is given so that readers can see the significance of topics to be discussed in subsequent chapters in a proper historical perspective. These topics are carefully chosen to show not only what great economists in the past contributed to the development of economics, but also what suggestions for solving our own current problems we can obtain by reworking problems they had to face. The book can be used in advanced undergraduate as well as graduate classes on the history of economics. Mathematical techniques used can easily be understood by advanced undergraduates of economics major, since some models constructed originally by contemporary mathematical economists are carefully reformulated without losing the essence, basic calculus and the rudiments of linear algebra being sufficient for understanding.