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Comparative Biochemistry V4
A Comprehensive Treatise
1st Edition - January 1, 1962
Editor: Marcel Florkin
9 7 8 - 0 - 3 2 3 - 1 4 2 1 5 - 1
Comparative Biochemistry: A Comprehensive Treatise, Volume IV: Constituents of Life — Part B focuses on the distribution, biogenesis, and metabolism of cells and organisms. … Read more
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Comparative Biochemistry: A Comprehensive Treatise, Volume IV: Constituents of Life — Part B focuses on the distribution, biogenesis, and metabolism of cells and organisms. Composed of various literature, the book first looks at the optical asymmetry of metabolites. The natural occurrence of D-amino acids and L-sugars; significance of purity; optical asymmetry and protein structure; and the relationship of optical asymmetry and cancer are discussed. The text also discusses structural studies on cellulose, starch, and glycogen; biochemistry of lignin formation; structure and localization of nucleic acids; and intraspecific and interspecific variations of protein molecules. The book considers the metabolism of aromatic amino acids, structural and chemical properties of keratin-forming tissues, sclerotization, and blood coagulation. The text further discusses metamorphosis and biochemical adaptation in amphibians. The importance of intrinsic tissue sensitivity in tadpoles; comparative morphological alterations; and the increase in serum albumin and serum protein are considered. The book focuses as well on the structure, distribution, and metabolism of porphyrins, pteridines, and carotenoids. The selection is a good source of data for researchers wanting to study the distribution, biogenesis, and metabolism of cells and organisms.
Contributors to Volume IVPrefaceContents of Volumes I, II, III, V, and VIPhylogenetic Charts1. The Optical Asymmetry of Metabolites I. Introduction II. The Significance of Optical Purity III. Absolute Configuration IV. The Natural Occurrence of D-Amino Acids and L-Sugars V. Optical Asymmetry and Protein Structure VI. Optical Asymmetry and Cancer VII. The Origin of Optical Activity and the Origin of Life VIII. Conclusions References2. Cellulose, Starch, and Glycogen I. Cellulose: General Introduction II. Starch: Structure of Amylose and Amylopectin III. Glycogen: Structural Studies References3. The Biochemistry of Lignin Formation I. Introduction II. The Microbiological Degradation of Cellulose III. The Aromatization Process in Microorganisms IV. Lignification in Higher Plants V. Conclusion References4. Nucleic Acids I. Introduction II. Cellular Localization of the Nucleic Acids III. Comparative Structure of the Nucleic Acids IV. Biological Specificity of the Nucleic Acids References5. Protein Molecules: Intraspecific and Interspecific Variations I. Introduction II. Scope and Mechanics of the Review III. Quantitative Comparisons of Amino Acid Compositions of Unfractionated Proteins IV. Antibiotics V. Hormones VI. Enzymes VII. Muscle Proteins VIII. Blood Proteins IX. Miscellaneous Proteins X. Attempts to Govern the Structures of Protein Molecules XI. Comparisons among Heterologous Proteins XII. Perspectives Notes Added in Proof References6. Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids I. Introduction II. Biosynthesis III. Metabolism of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine IV. Metabolism of Tryptophan References7. Structural and Chemical Properties of Keratin-Forming Tissues I. Introduction II. Biological Properties of Keratinizing Tissues III. Structural Properties of Horny Tissues IV. Chemical Composition of Horny Tissues V. Epidermal Keratin VI. Hair Keratin VII. Quill, Feather, and Horn Keratin VIII. One-Component and Two-Component Theories of Keratin IX. Concluding Remarks References8. Sclerotization I. Introduction II. Sclerotization III. Systematic Distribution of Sclerotin IV. Enzymes V. Variety of Sclerotins VI. Conclusions References9. Silk and Other Cocoon Proteins I. Introduction II. Main Importance of Studies on Silk III. The Protein "Fibroin" and Its Varieties IV. Fibroins of the Parallel-ß Type V. Fibroins of the Cross-ß Type VI. The a-Form of Silk VII. Silk Which is Collagen VIII. Silk Which is Chitin IX. Further Cases of "Silk" in the Cross-ß Form X. The Other Cocoon Protein — the Sericin Fraction XI. The Proteins of Other Cocoons XII. Byssus Silk XIII. Microscopy XIV. Taxonomy and the Structure of Silk XV. Summary and Conclusions References10. Blood Coagulation I. Introduction II. Systems of Coagulation in the Different Zoological Groups III. Comparison of Coagulation Systems among the Zoological Groups IV. Conclusions References11. Metamorphosis and Biochemical Adaptation in Amphibia I. Introduction II. Comparative Morphological Alterations at Metamorphosis III. Comparative Endocrine Regulation of Metamorphosis IV. Importance of Intrinsic Tissue Sensitivity in the Tadpole V. Biochemical Changes of Direct Adaptive Value during Anuran Metamorphosis VI. The Shift from Ammonotelism to Ureotelism during Anuran Metamorphosis VII. The Increase in Serum Albumin and Serum Protein VIII. The Change in the Molecular Properties and Biosynthesis of Hemoglobin IX. Alterations in Digestive Mechanisms X. The Effect on Respiration XI. Additional Biochemical Alterations during Anuran Metamorphosis XII. The Second Metamorphosis XIII. Conclusion Addenda References12. Porphyrins: Structure, Distribution, and Metabolism I. Introduction II. Porphyrins and Their Metal Complexes III. Occurrence of Porphyrins in Invertebrates IV. Origin and Function of the Porphyrins in Invertebrates V. Occurrence of Porphyrins in Vertebrates VI. Conclusion References13. Pteridines: Structure and Metabolism I. Introduction II. Folic Acid Compounds III. Simple Pteridines IV. Biosynthesis of the Pteridine Ring V. Riboflavin VI. Conclusion References14. Carotenoids: Structure, Distribution, and Function I. Introduction II. Structures of Naturally Occurring Carotenoids III. Distribution in Nature IV. Conclusions References15. Comparative Biochemistry of the Alkali Metals I. Chemistry of the Alkali Metals II. General Distribution of the Alkalies III. Alkali Metals as Required Nutrients IV. Selective Combination of Alkali Metals with Cell Constituents and Particulates V. The Action of Alkali Metals on Enzyme Systems and Cellular Metabolism VI. The Physiological and Pharmacological Effects of the Alkali Metals VII. The Regulation of the Alkali Metals in Body Fluids and Cells VIII. The Sodium and Potassium Balance of the Whole Organism IX. The Evolution of the Ionic Balance of Cells and Body Fluids X. The Significance of Ion Gradients XI. Conclusion ReferencesAuthor IndexSubject Index