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Analysis of Triglycerides
1st Edition - January 28, 1972
Author: Carter Litchfield
9 7 8 - 0 - 3 2 3 - 1 5 3 5 2 - 2
Analysis of Triglycerides is a 13-chapter text that covers the various types of analyses, the specific operating conditions, and experimental details necessary when dealing with… Read more
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Analysis of Triglycerides is a 13-chapter text that covers the various types of analyses, the specific operating conditions, and experimental details necessary when dealing with certain types of triglyceride molecules and their derived diglycerides. After briefly providing an overview of the history and applications of triglycerides analysis, this book goes on describing the analytical techniques for triglyceride analysis, which are subdivided into sample preparation, molecular fractionation, and positional analysis. Considerable chapters are devoted to diglyceride characterization procedures. A chapter describes the various fatty acid distribution theories for estimating the composition of natural triglyceride mixtures. The final chapter outlines useful combinations of analytical techniques for obtaining maximum compositional information. This book is a comprehensive reference source for analytical and organic chemists and researchers, as well as for teachers and students who are interested in seeking more information on the subject.
PrefaceAcknowledgments1. Introduction I. Triglyceride Molecules A. Nomenclature B. Complexity of Triglyceride Mixtures II. History of Triglyceride Analysis A. 1815-1955: Crystallization and Oxidation Techniques B. 1956-1972: Chromatographic and Enzymatic Techniques III. Applications of Triglyceride Analysis2. Extraction, Isolation, Measurement, and Fatty Acid Analysis I. Extraction of Lipids II. Isolation of Triglycerides A. Column Chromatography on Florisil B. Column Chromatography on Silicic Acid C. Thin-Layer Chromatography on Silicic Acid D. Other Methods III. Measurement of Total Triglyceride IV. Fatty Acid Analysis A. Methyl Ester Preparation B. Column C. Identification of Peaks D. Quantitation3. Preparation of Chemical Derivatives before Separation I. Reactions at Double Bonds A. Hydrogenation B. Permanganate Oxidation C. Ozonization D. Epoxidation E. Bromination F. Mercuration G. Other Reactions at Double Bonds II. Reactions at Ester Linkages A. Estolide Ester Cleavage B. Interesterification III. Reactions of Hydroxy, Epoxy, and Keto Groups A. Acetylation B. Trimethylsilyl Ethers C. Hydrazone Formation4. Silver Ion Adsorption Chromatography I. Methods A. Choice of Method B. Thin-Layer Chromatography C. Column Chromatography II. Applications A. Separation by Number of cis Double Bonds B. Isomer Separations C. Other Functional Groups D. Oxidized Triglycerides E. Derived Diglycerides5. Liquid-Liquid Partition Chromatography I. Methods A. Choice of Method B. Thin-Layer and Paper Chromatography C. Column Chromatography D. Countercurrent Distribution II. Applications A. Separation by Partition Number B. Separation by Unsaturation C. Oxidized Triglycerides D. Other Functional Groups and Derivatives E. Derived Diglycerides6. Gas-Liquid Chromatography I. Methods A. Apparatus B. Column C. Operating Conditions D. Quantitation II. Applications A. Separation by Carbon Number B. Separation by Unsaturation C. Separation of Isomers D. Hydroxy and Epoxy Triglycerides E. Oxidized Triglycerides F. Preparative Separations G. Radioisotope Detection H. Derived Diglycerides7. Fractional Crystallization I. Methods A. Solvent B. Procedure II. Applications A. Separation by Number of Saturated Acyl Groups B. Separation by Number of Double Bonds C. Oxidized Triglycerides D. Other Derivatives8. Other Separation Techniques I. Silicic Acid Adsorption Chromatography A. Methods B. Separation by Molecular Weight C. Separation by Unsaturation D. Triglyceride Positional Isomers E. Oxygenated Triglycerides F. Brominated Triglycerides G. Mercurated Triglycerides H. Derived Diglycerides II. Florisil Adsorption Chromatography III. Aluminum Oxide Adsorption Chromatography IV. Charcoal Adsorption Chromatography V. Paper Chromatography VI. Ion-Exchange Chromatography VII. Permeation Chromatography VIII. Thermal Gradient Chromatography IX. Distillation9. Partial Deacylation Reactions I. Chemical Deacylation Methods A. Grignard Reagents B. Other Reagents II. Enzymatic Deacylation Methods A. Pancreatic Lipase B. Milk Lipase C. Rhizopus arrhizus Lipase D. Geotrichum canaidum Lipase E. Other Lipases10. Sterospecific Analysis I. Methods A. sn-1,2(2,3)-Diglyceride Method of Brockerhoff B. sn-1,3-Diglyceride Method of Brockerhoff C. Method of Lands D. Choice of Method E. Deacylation of Triglycerides to Representative Diglycerides F. Phosphorylation of Diglycerides G. Hydrolysis of Phospholipid with Phospholipase A II. Applications A. Positional Distribution of Fatty Acids B. Composition of Triglyceride Mixtures C. Composition of Derived Diglycerides11. Physical Properties I. Mass Spectrometry A. Pure Triglycerides B. Natural Triglyceride Mixtures C. Derived Diglycerides II. Melting Point III. Differential Cooling Curves IV. Infrared Spectroscopy V. X-Ray Diffraction VI. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance VII. Rotation of Polarized Light A. Triglycerides B. Derived Diglycerides VIII. Piezoelectric Effect IX. Other Physical Constants12. Distribution of Fatty Acids in Natural Triglyceride Mixtures I. Positional Distribution Patterns A. Plant Triglycerides B. Animal Triglycerides II. Triglyceride Composition Patterns A. 1-Random-2-Random-3-Random Hypothesis B. 1,3-Random-2-Random Hypothesis C. Other Fatty Acid Distribution Hypothesis D. Validity of Distribution Hypotheses III. Biosynthesis of Triglycerides13. Combining Methods for Detailed Analysis of Complex Triglyceride Mixtures I. Combining Triglyceride Analysis Techniques A. Separation Techniques B. Positional Analysis Techniques II. Use of Derived Diglycerides of Analysis for Unresolvable Triglyceride Mixtures III. Maximum Analysis of Complex Triglyceride Mixtures IV. Major Unsolved Problems of Triglyceride Analysis ReferencesAuthor IndexSubject Index