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# Aircraft Structures for Engineering Students

- 4th Edition - March 2, 2007
- Author: T.H.G. Megson
- Language: English
- eBook ISBN:9 7 8 - 0 - 0 8 - 0 4 8 8 3 1 - 8

Aircraft Structures for Engineering Students is the leading self contained aircraft structures course text. It covers all fundamental subjects, including elasticity, struct… Read more

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Request a sales quote*Aircraft Structures for Engineering Students*is the leading self contained aircraft structures course text. It covers all fundamental subjects, including elasticity, structural analysis, airworthiness and aeroelasticity. Now in its fourth edition, the author has revised and updated the text throughout and added new case study and worked example material to make the text even more accessible.

- The leading Aircraft Structures text, covering a complete course from basic structural mechanics to finite element analysis
- Enhanced pedagogy with additional case studies, worked examples and home work exercises

Undergraduate and postgraduate students of aerospace and aeronautical engineering; Also suitable for professional development and training courses

Part A Fundamentals of Structural Analysis

A I Elasticity

1. Basic elasticity

1.1 Stress

1.2 Notation for forces and stress

1.3 Equations of equilibrium

1.4 Plane stress

1.5 Boundary conditions

1.6 Determination of stresses on inclined planes

1.7 Principal Stresses

1.8 Mohr’s circle of stress

1.9 Strain

1.10 compatibility equations

1.11 Plane strain

1.12 Determination of strains on inclined planes

1.13 Principal strains

1.14 Mohr’s circle of strain

1.15 Stress-strain relationships

1.16 Experimental measurement of surface strains

2. Two-dimensional problems in elasticity

2.1 Two-dimensional problems

2.2 Stress functions

2.3 Inverse and semi-inverse methods

2.4 St. Venant’s principle

2.5 Displacements

2.6 Bending of an end-loaded cantilever

3. Torsion of solid sections

3.1 Prandtl stress function solution

3.2 St. Venant warping function solution

3.3 The membrane analogy

3.4 Torsion of a narrow rectangular strip

A II Virtual Work, Energy and Matrix Methods

4. Virtual work

4.1 Work

4.2 Principle of virtual work

4.2.1 For a particle

4.2.2 For a rigid body

4.2.3 Virtual work in a deformable body

4.2.4 Work done by internal force systems

4.2.5 Virtual work due to external force systems

4.3.6 Use of virtual force systems

4.3 Applications of the principle of virtual work

5. Energy methods

5.1 Strain energy and complementary energy

5.2 The principle of the stationary value of the total complementary energy

5.3 Application to deflection problems

5.4 Application to the solution of statically indeterminate systems

5.5 Unit load method

5.6 Flexibility method

5.6.1 Self Straining method

5.7 Total potential energy

5.8 the principle of the stationary value of the total potential energy

5.9 Principle of superposition

5.10 Reciprocal theorems

5.11 Temperature effects

6. Matrix methods

6.1 Notation

6.2 Stiffness matrix for an elastic spring

6.3 Stiffness matrix for two elastic springs in line

6.4 Matrix analysis of pin-jointed frameworks

6.5 Application to statically indeterminate frameworks

6.6 Matrix analysis of space frames

6.7 Stiffness matrix for a uniform beam

6.8 Finite element method for continuum structures

6.8.1 Stiffness matrix for a beam-element

6.8.2 Stiffness matrix for a triangular finite element

6.8.3 Stiffness matrix for a quadrilateral element

A III Thin Plate Theory

7. Bending of thin plates

7.1 Pure Bending of thin plates

7.2 Plates subjected to bending and twitsting

7.3 Plates subjected to a distributed transverse load

7.3.1 The simply supported edge

7.3.2 The built-in edge

7.3.3 The free edge

7.4 Combined bending and in-plane loading of a thin rectangular plate

7.5 Bending of thin plates having a small initial curvature

7.6 Energy method for the bending of thin plates

7.6.1 Strain energy produced by bending and twisting

7.6.2 Potential energy of a transverse load

7.6.3 Potential energy of in-plane loads

A IV Structural Instability

8. Columns

8.1 Euler buckling of columns

8.2 Inelastic buckling

8.3 Effect of initial imperfections

8.4 Stability of beams under transverse and axial loads

8.5 Energy method for the calculation of buckling loads in columns

9. Thin plates

9.1 Buckling of thin plates

9.2 Inelastic buckling of plates

9.3 Experimental determination of critical load for a flat plate

9.4 Local instability

9.5 Instability of stiffened panels

9.6 Failure stress in plates and stiffened panels

9.7 Tension field beams

9.7.1 Complete diagonal

9.7.2 Incomplete diagonal tension

9.7.3 Post buckling behaviour

10. Structural Vibration

10.1 Oscillation of mass/spring systems

10.2 Oscillation of beams

10.3 Approximate methods for determining natural frequencies

Part B Analysis of Aircraft Structures

B I Principles of Stressed Skin Construction

11. Materials

11.1 Aluminium alloys

11.2 Steel

11.3 Titanium

11.4 Plastics

11.5 Glass

11.6 Composites

11.7 Properties of materials

12. Structural components of aircraft

12.1 Loads on components

12.2 Function of components

12.3 Fabrication of components

12.4 Connections Structural Vibration

BII Airworthiness and Airframe Loads

13. Airworthiness

13.1 Factors of safety - flight envelope

13.2 Load factor determination

13.2.1 Limit load

13.2.2 Structural deterioration and uncertainties in design

13.2.3 Variation in structural strength

13.2.4 Fatigue

14. Airframe loads

14.1 Inertia loads

14.2 Symmetric manoeuvre loads

14.2.1 Level flight

14.2.2 General case

14.3 Normal acceleration associated with various types of manoeuvre

14.3.1 Steady pull-out

14.3.2 Correctly banked turn

14.4 Gust loads

14.4.1 Sharp-edged gust

14.4.2 The "graded" gust

14.4.3 Gust envelope

15. Fatigue

15.1 Safe life and fail safe structures

15.2 Designing against fatigue

15.3 Fatigue strength of components

15.4 Prediction of aircraft fatigue life

15.5 Creep

15.6 Crack propagation

B III Bending, Shear and Torsion of Thin-Walled Beams

16. Bending of open and closed, Thin-Walled Beams

16.1 Symmetrical Bending

16.1.1 Assumptions

16.1.2 Direct Stress Distribution

16.1.3 Anticlastic Bending

16.2 Unsymmetrical Bending

16.2.1 Sign Conventions and notation

16.2.2 Resolution of bending moments

16.2.3 Direct Stress distribution due to bending

16.2.4 Position of the neutral axis

16.2.5Load intensity, shear force and bending moment relationships, general case

16.3 Deflections due to bending

16.4 Calculation of Section Properties

16.4.1 Parallel Axes Theorem

16.4.2 Theorem of Perpendicular Axes

16.4.3 Second Moments of Area of Standard Sections

16.5 Application of bending theory

17. Shear of beams

17.1 General stress, strain and displacement relationships

17.2 Open section beams

17.2.1 Shear centre

17.3 Closed section beams

17.3.1 Twist and warping

17.3.2 Shear centre

18. Torsion of beams

18.1 Closed section beams

18.1.1 Displacements associated with the Bredt-Batho shear flow

18.1.2 Condition for zero warping

18.2 Torsion of open section beams

18.2.1 Warping of cross-section

19. Combined open and closed section beams

19.1 Bending

19.2 Shear

19.3 Torsion

20. Structural Idealisation

20.1 Principle

20.2 Idealisation of a panel

20.3 Effect of idealisation on the analysis of open and closed section beams

20.3.1 Bending of open and closed section beams

20.3.2 Shear of open section beams

20.3.3 Shear of closed section beams

20.3.4 Alternative method for the calculation of shear flow distribution

20.3.5 Torsion of open and closed section beams

B IV Stress Analysis of Aircraft Components

21. Wing spars and box beams

21.1 Tapered wing spar

21.2 Open and closed section box beams

21.3 Beams having variable stringer areas

22. Fuselages

22.1 Bending

22.2 Shear

22.3 Torsion

22.4 Effect of cut-outs

23. Wings

23.1 Three-boom shell

23.2 Bending

23.3 Torsion

23.4 Shear

23.5 Shear centre

23.6 Tapered wings

23.7 Deflections

23.8 Effect of cut-outs

24. Fuselage frames and wing ribs

24.1 Principles of Stiffener/web construction

24.2 Fuselage frames

24.3 Wing ribs

25. Laminated composite structures

25.1 Elastic constants of simple lamina

2.5.2 Stress-strain relationships for an orthotropic ply (macro-approach)

25.2.1 Specially orthotropic ply

25.2.2 Generally orthotropic ply

25.3 Thin-walled composite beams

25.3.1 Axial load

25.3.2 Bending

25.3.3 Shear

25.3.4 Torsion

BV Structural and Loading Discontinuities

26. Closed section beams

26.1 General aspects

26.2 Shear distribution at a built-in end

26.3 Torsion of a rectangular section beam

26.4 Shear lag

27. Open section beams

27.1 I-section beam subjected to torsion

27.2 Arbitrary section beam subjected to torsion

27.3 Distributed torque loading

27.4 General system of loading

27.5 Moment couple (bimoment)

27.5.1 Shear flow due to MT

B VI Introduction to Aeroelasticity

28. Wing problems

28.1 Types of problem

28.2 Load distribution and divergence

28.2.1 Wing torsional divergence (two-dimensional)

28.2.1 Wing torsional divergence (finite wing)

28.2.3 Swept wing divergence

28.3 Control effectiveness and reversal

28.3.1 Aileron effectiveness and reversal (two-dimensional)

28.3.2 Aileron effectiveness and reversal (finite wing)

28.4 Introduction to Flutter

28.4.1 Coupling

28.4.2 Critical flutter speed

28.4.3 Prevention of flutter

28.4.4 Experimental determination of flutter speed.

28.4.5 Control surface flutter

APPENDIX

Case Study : Design of an Aircraft Fuselage

Requirement: The aircraft

A1. Specification

A2. Data

A3. Initial calculations

A4. Balancing out calculations

A5. Fuselage loads

A6. Fuselage design calculations

A I Elasticity

1. Basic elasticity

1.1 Stress

1.2 Notation for forces and stress

1.3 Equations of equilibrium

1.4 Plane stress

1.5 Boundary conditions

1.6 Determination of stresses on inclined planes

1.7 Principal Stresses

1.8 Mohr’s circle of stress

1.9 Strain

1.10 compatibility equations

1.11 Plane strain

1.12 Determination of strains on inclined planes

1.13 Principal strains

1.14 Mohr’s circle of strain

1.15 Stress-strain relationships

1.16 Experimental measurement of surface strains

2. Two-dimensional problems in elasticity

2.1 Two-dimensional problems

2.2 Stress functions

2.3 Inverse and semi-inverse methods

2.4 St. Venant’s principle

2.5 Displacements

2.6 Bending of an end-loaded cantilever

3. Torsion of solid sections

3.1 Prandtl stress function solution

3.2 St. Venant warping function solution

3.3 The membrane analogy

3.4 Torsion of a narrow rectangular strip

A II Virtual Work, Energy and Matrix Methods

4. Virtual work

4.1 Work

4.2 Principle of virtual work

4.2.1 For a particle

4.2.2 For a rigid body

4.2.3 Virtual work in a deformable body

4.2.4 Work done by internal force systems

4.2.5 Virtual work due to external force systems

4.3.6 Use of virtual force systems

4.3 Applications of the principle of virtual work

5. Energy methods

5.1 Strain energy and complementary energy

5.2 The principle of the stationary value of the total complementary energy

5.3 Application to deflection problems

5.4 Application to the solution of statically indeterminate systems

5.5 Unit load method

5.6 Flexibility method

5.6.1 Self Straining method

5.7 Total potential energy

5.8 the principle of the stationary value of the total potential energy

5.9 Principle of superposition

5.10 Reciprocal theorems

5.11 Temperature effects

6. Matrix methods

6.1 Notation

6.2 Stiffness matrix for an elastic spring

6.3 Stiffness matrix for two elastic springs in line

6.4 Matrix analysis of pin-jointed frameworks

6.5 Application to statically indeterminate frameworks

6.6 Matrix analysis of space frames

6.7 Stiffness matrix for a uniform beam

6.8 Finite element method for continuum structures

6.8.1 Stiffness matrix for a beam-element

6.8.2 Stiffness matrix for a triangular finite element

6.8.3 Stiffness matrix for a quadrilateral element

A III Thin Plate Theory

7. Bending of thin plates

7.1 Pure Bending of thin plates

7.2 Plates subjected to bending and twitsting

7.3 Plates subjected to a distributed transverse load

7.3.1 The simply supported edge

7.3.2 The built-in edge

7.3.3 The free edge

7.4 Combined bending and in-plane loading of a thin rectangular plate

7.5 Bending of thin plates having a small initial curvature

7.6 Energy method for the bending of thin plates

7.6.1 Strain energy produced by bending and twisting

7.6.2 Potential energy of a transverse load

7.6.3 Potential energy of in-plane loads

A IV Structural Instability

8. Columns

8.1 Euler buckling of columns

8.2 Inelastic buckling

8.3 Effect of initial imperfections

8.4 Stability of beams under transverse and axial loads

8.5 Energy method for the calculation of buckling loads in columns

9. Thin plates

9.1 Buckling of thin plates

9.2 Inelastic buckling of plates

9.3 Experimental determination of critical load for a flat plate

9.4 Local instability

9.5 Instability of stiffened panels

9.6 Failure stress in plates and stiffened panels

9.7 Tension field beams

9.7.1 Complete diagonal

9.7.2 Incomplete diagonal tension

9.7.3 Post buckling behaviour

10. Structural Vibration

10.1 Oscillation of mass/spring systems

10.2 Oscillation of beams

10.3 Approximate methods for determining natural frequencies

Part B Analysis of Aircraft Structures

B I Principles of Stressed Skin Construction

11. Materials

11.1 Aluminium alloys

11.2 Steel

11.3 Titanium

11.4 Plastics

11.5 Glass

11.6 Composites

11.7 Properties of materials

12. Structural components of aircraft

12.1 Loads on components

12.2 Function of components

12.3 Fabrication of components

12.4 Connections Structural Vibration

BII Airworthiness and Airframe Loads

13. Airworthiness

13.1 Factors of safety - flight envelope

13.2 Load factor determination

13.2.1 Limit load

13.2.2 Structural deterioration and uncertainties in design

13.2.3 Variation in structural strength

13.2.4 Fatigue

14. Airframe loads

14.1 Inertia loads

14.2 Symmetric manoeuvre loads

14.2.1 Level flight

14.2.2 General case

14.3 Normal acceleration associated with various types of manoeuvre

14.3.1 Steady pull-out

14.3.2 Correctly banked turn

14.4 Gust loads

14.4.1 Sharp-edged gust

14.4.2 The "graded" gust

14.4.3 Gust envelope

15. Fatigue

15.1 Safe life and fail safe structures

15.2 Designing against fatigue

15.3 Fatigue strength of components

15.4 Prediction of aircraft fatigue life

15.5 Creep

15.6 Crack propagation

B III Bending, Shear and Torsion of Thin-Walled Beams

16. Bending of open and closed, Thin-Walled Beams

16.1 Symmetrical Bending

16.1.1 Assumptions

16.1.2 Direct Stress Distribution

16.1.3 Anticlastic Bending

16.2 Unsymmetrical Bending

16.2.1 Sign Conventions and notation

16.2.2 Resolution of bending moments

16.2.3 Direct Stress distribution due to bending

16.2.4 Position of the neutral axis

16.2.5Load intensity, shear force and bending moment relationships, general case

16.3 Deflections due to bending

16.4 Calculation of Section Properties

16.4.1 Parallel Axes Theorem

16.4.2 Theorem of Perpendicular Axes

16.4.3 Second Moments of Area of Standard Sections

16.5 Application of bending theory

17. Shear of beams

17.1 General stress, strain and displacement relationships

17.2 Open section beams

17.2.1 Shear centre

17.3 Closed section beams

17.3.1 Twist and warping

17.3.2 Shear centre

18. Torsion of beams

18.1 Closed section beams

18.1.1 Displacements associated with the Bredt-Batho shear flow

18.1.2 Condition for zero warping

18.2 Torsion of open section beams

18.2.1 Warping of cross-section

19. Combined open and closed section beams

19.1 Bending

19.2 Shear

19.3 Torsion

20. Structural Idealisation

20.1 Principle

20.2 Idealisation of a panel

20.3 Effect of idealisation on the analysis of open and closed section beams

20.3.1 Bending of open and closed section beams

20.3.2 Shear of open section beams

20.3.3 Shear of closed section beams

20.3.4 Alternative method for the calculation of shear flow distribution

20.3.5 Torsion of open and closed section beams

B IV Stress Analysis of Aircraft Components

21. Wing spars and box beams

21.1 Tapered wing spar

21.2 Open and closed section box beams

21.3 Beams having variable stringer areas

22. Fuselages

22.1 Bending

22.2 Shear

22.3 Torsion

22.4 Effect of cut-outs

23. Wings

23.1 Three-boom shell

23.2 Bending

23.3 Torsion

23.4 Shear

23.5 Shear centre

23.6 Tapered wings

23.7 Deflections

23.8 Effect of cut-outs

24. Fuselage frames and wing ribs

24.1 Principles of Stiffener/web construction

24.2 Fuselage frames

24.3 Wing ribs

25. Laminated composite structures

25.1 Elastic constants of simple lamina

2.5.2 Stress-strain relationships for an orthotropic ply (macro-approach)

25.2.1 Specially orthotropic ply

25.2.2 Generally orthotropic ply

25.3 Thin-walled composite beams

25.3.1 Axial load

25.3.2 Bending

25.3.3 Shear

25.3.4 Torsion

BV Structural and Loading Discontinuities

26. Closed section beams

26.1 General aspects

26.2 Shear distribution at a built-in end

26.3 Torsion of a rectangular section beam

26.4 Shear lag

27. Open section beams

27.1 I-section beam subjected to torsion

27.2 Arbitrary section beam subjected to torsion

27.3 Distributed torque loading

27.4 General system of loading

27.5 Moment couple (bimoment)

27.5.1 Shear flow due to MT

B VI Introduction to Aeroelasticity

28. Wing problems

28.1 Types of problem

28.2 Load distribution and divergence

28.2.1 Wing torsional divergence (two-dimensional)

28.2.1 Wing torsional divergence (finite wing)

28.2.3 Swept wing divergence

28.3 Control effectiveness and reversal

28.3.1 Aileron effectiveness and reversal (two-dimensional)

28.3.2 Aileron effectiveness and reversal (finite wing)

28.4 Introduction to Flutter

28.4.1 Coupling

28.4.2 Critical flutter speed

28.4.3 Prevention of flutter

28.4.4 Experimental determination of flutter speed.

28.4.5 Control surface flutter

APPENDIX

Case Study : Design of an Aircraft Fuselage

Requirement: The aircraft

A1. Specification

A2. Data

A3. Initial calculations

A4. Balancing out calculations

A5. Fuselage loads

A6. Fuselage design calculations

- No. of pages: 824
- Language: English
- Edition: 4
- Published: March 2, 2007
- Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
- eBook ISBN: 9780080488318

TM

### T.H.G. Megson

T.H.G. Megson is a professor emeritus with the Department of Civil Engineering at Leeds University (UK). For Elsevier he has written the market leading Butterworth Heinemann textbooks Aircraft Structures for Engineering Students and Introduction to Aircraft Structural Analysis (a briefer derivative of the aircraft structures book), as well as the text/ref hybrid Structural and Stress Analysis.

Affiliations and expertise

Professor Emeritus, Department of Civil Engineering, Leeds University, UK