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A Century of Controversy
Ethnological Issues from 1860 to 1960
1st Edition - July 28, 1985
Author: Elman R Service
Editor: E. A. Hammel
9 7 8 - 1 - 4 8 3 2 - 6 9 6 0 - 3
A Century of Controversy: Ethnological Issues from 1860 to 1960 is an assessment of the history of ethnology in terms of its intellectual progress, with emphasis on the… Read more
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A Century of Controversy: Ethnological Issues from 1860 to 1960 is an assessment of the history of ethnology in terms of its intellectual progress, with emphasis on the controversial issues that were broached between 1860 and 1960. Two related philosophical or theoretical poses that characterized the prominent ethnological thinkers of this period, and earlier, are related to this phenomenon. One was the prevalent positivism, the other the belief in human progress as a form of social, cultural, and mental evolution. Comprised of 19 chapters, this volume begins by looking at several eminent scholars dealing more closely with the subject of ethnology, including Henry Maine and John F. McLennan in Great Britain; Johann J. Bachofen in Switzerland; and Fustel de Coulanges in France. In particular, the chapter examines the disagreement among Maine, Bachofen, McLennan, and Fustel de Coulanges as to the nature of the earliest society and its form of marriage; the nature of the evolutionary transformations of society (especially from primitive society to civilization); and the actual meaning and function of kinship terminology. The next two chapters describe the positive, useful discoveries as well as the mistakes and weaknesses of Lewis H. Morgan's work, with particular reference to his classificatory kinship nomenclature. Subsequent sections focus on controversies surrounding kinship terminology; social structure; the origins of government; the economic life of primitive peoples; and society and culture. This book will be of interest to scholars of anthropology, archaeology, and ethnology.
PrefaceI. To Set the Stage 1. Introduction 2. The Classificatory Kinship System 3. Morgan's Ancient Society (1877)II. Kinship Terminology 4. Kinship Terms: Biological or Social? 5. Kinship Terms: Mind or Society? 6. Kinship Terms: Structure and Function 7. Alliance Versus Descent in the Semantics of Kinship Terms 8. The Meaning of Kinship Terms as Suggested by Historical Changes in PatternIII. Social Structure 9. What Are Descent Groups? 10. Totem and Taboo: Society or Mind? 11. The Origin and Nature of ReligionIV. The Origins of Government 12. Conflict Theory 13. Integration TheoryV. Economic Life of Primitive Peoples 14. Property in Primitive Society 15. Economic Exchange and Allocation: Maximization of What?VI. Society and Culture 16. The Superorganic 17. Cultural Anthropology Versus Social Anthropology 18. The Locus of Cultural Reality: Is It in the Mind or Is It an Entity sui Generis!VII. A Broader Controversy 19. Some Further ConclusionsBibliographyIndex