What information should jurors have during court proceedings to render a just decision? Should politicians know who is donating money to their campaigns? Will scientists draw biased conclusions about drug efficacy when they know more about the patient or study population? The potential for bias in decision-making by physicians, lawyers, politicians, and scientists has been recognized for hundreds of years and drawn attention from media and scholars seeking to understand the role that conflicts of interests and other psychological processes play. However, commonly proposed solutions to biased decision-making, such as transparency (disclosing conflicts) or exclusion (avoiding conflicts) do not directly solve the underlying problem of bias and may have unintended consequences. Robertson and Kesselheim bring together a renowned group of interdisciplinary scholars to consider another way to reduce the risk of biased decision-making: blinding. What are the advantages and limitations of blinding? How can we quantify the biases in unblinded research? Can we develop new ways to blind decision-makers? What are the ethical problems with withholding information from decision-makers in the course of blinding? How can blinding be adapted to legal and scientific procedures and in institutions not previously open to this approach? Fundamentally, these sorts of questions—about who needs to know what—open new doors of inquiry for the design of scientific research studies, regulatory institutions, and courts. The volume surveys the theory, practice, and future of blinding, drawing upon leading authors with a diverse range of methodologies and areas of expertise, including forensic sciences, medicine, law, philosophy, economics, psychology, sociology, and statistics.
Chemical Analysis for Forensic Evidence provides readers with the fundamental framework of forensic analytical chemistry, describing the entire process, from crime scene investigation to evidence sampling, laboratory analysis, quality aspects, and reporting and testifying in court. In doing so, important principles and aspects are demonstrated through the various forensic expertise areas in which analytical chemistry plays a key role, including illicit drugs, explosives, toxicology, fire debris analysis and microtraces such as gunshot residues, glass and fibers. This book illuminates the underlying practical framework that governs how analytical chemistry is used in practice by forensic experts to solve crime. Arian van Asten utilizes a hands-on approach with numerous questions, examples, exercises and illustrations to help solidify key concepts and teach them in an engaging way.
Child Abuse and Neglect: Forensic Issues in Evidence, Impact and Management provides an overview of all aspects of child abuse and neglect, approaching the topic. from several viewpoints. First, child abuse is considered from both victimization and offending perspectives, and although empirical scholarship informs much of the content, there is applied material from international experts and practitioners in the field—from policing, to child safety and intelligence. The content is presented to align with university semester timetables in three parts, including 1) Typologies, methods and platforms for abuse, 2) Impacts and prevention, and (3) Issues surrounding recognition and management of child abuse. This book fills a void in the available university-level classroom-targeted literature, promoting the inclusion of child abuse as a standalone subject within university curricula. As such, readership includes undergraduate and postgraduate students, teachers and wider scholarship, as well as practitioners; including those from psychology, criminology, criminal justice and law enforcement.
Child Sexual Abuse: Forensic Issues in Evidence, Impact, and Management covers the issue of child sexual abuse from several viewpoints. The book approaches child abuse from both victimization and offender perspectives, offering applied perspectives from experts and practitioners in the field, including discussions on policing, child safety and intelligence. This is a significant divergence from the literature most commonly provided in the market. Other sections cover psychological, physical abuse, and neglect, protective factors (at individual and community levels), recognition, responses, biopsychosocial outcomes (dealt with in discrete chapters), public policy, prevention, institutional abuse, children and corrections, treatment, management, and much more.
Computer Incident Response and Forensics Team Management provides security professionals with a complete handbook of computer incident response from the perspective of forensics team management. This unique approach teaches readers the concepts and principles they need to conduct a successful incident response investigation, ensuring that proven policies and procedures are established and followed by all team members. Leighton R. Johnson III describes the processes within an incident response event and shows the crucial importance of skillful forensics team management, including when and where the transition to forensics investigation should occur during an incident response event. The book also provides discussions of key incident response components.
Our bodies record what happens to us physically throughout our lives. This is illustrated by the simple appearance of scars from injuries sustained years, and even decades ago. Evidence such as scars also tells us how we used our joints or may have injured them as children and adults. Our bodies conform to the environment in which we live, both outside and inside. By examining and observing these key clues, a forensic investigator can reveal the unique character that tells the story of a person’s life and death. Craniofacial Anatomy and Forensic Identification is an atlas that covers all aspects of facial reconstruction and anatomy of the head and neck, such as facial expression and the anatomic basis for facial development, along with the effects of muscle movement. Written by a world-renowned forensic artist with decades of experience as a scientific illustrator as well as a portraitist, anthropologist, and lecturer in anatomy and biology, the author is as much a scientist as an artist.
Crime Lab Report compiles the most relevant and popular articles that appeared in this ongoing periodical between 2007 and 2017. Articles have been categorized by theme to serve as chapters, with an introduction at the beginning of each chapter and a description of the events that inspired each article. The author concludes the compilation with a reflection on Crime Lab Report, the retired periodical, and the future of forensic science as the 21st Century unfolds. Intended for forensic scientists, prosecutors, defense attorneys and even students studying forensic science or law, this compilation provides much needed information on the topics at hand.
Crime Scene Investigation Laboratory Manual, Second Edition, is written by a former crime scene investigator and forensic scientist who provides practical, straightforward, and immediately applicable best practices. Readers will learn the latest techniques and procedures, including deconstructing first responder contamination, the preliminary walk-through, utilizing associative evidence, enhancing trace, biological and chemical evidence, and reconstructing scenes through wound dynamics, glass fracture patterns, bloodstain patterns, ballistics, and more. This lab manual provides information and examples for all aspects of crime scene investigation. In addition, included exercises teach the proper techniques for securing, documenting and searing a crime scene, how to visualize or enhance the evidence found, how to package and preserve the evidence, and how to reconstruct what happened at the crime scene. This manual is intended to accompany any crime scene investigation textbook.
The seventh edition of Criminal Investigation presents the fundamentals of criminal investigation and provides a sound method for reconstructing a past event (i.e., a crime) based on three major sources of information — people, records, and physical evidence. In addition to covering fundamental practices such as surveillance, interrogation and eyewitness identification, this volume is updated with the latest techniques available. Special topics in terrorism, organized crime, and white-collar crime round out this complete guide to the discipline of criminal investigation practice.This enhanced eBook combines the depth of information found in the traditional textbook, while providing additional hands-on features that will help readers understand and retain key concepts. This enhanced eBook goes far beyond the flowing text, annotation, and hyperlinking available in most ebooks. Providing a learning experience above and beyond that of a traditional textbook, the enhanced eBook publication of Criminal Investigation is an innovative approach to an important topic in criminal justice and investigation.
Criminal Justice Reform: Investigative and Forensic Negligence within Law Enforcement, the Legal Profession, and the Judiciary provides readers with an applied understanding of the day-to-day failings within the justice system, from a practical and human standpoint, and as an ancillary to the report of Forensic Science by the National Academy of Science in 2009, and the Report on Forensic Science by the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology in 2016. The book covers the specific reforms necessary to preserve the intended missions of those professionals in control of the criminal justice system, including law enforcement, prosecutors and the judiciary.