The Red Blood Cell, Second Edition, Volume I provides information pertinent to red blood cells, which is the most intensely studied human tissue. This book reviews the basic biomedical knowledge about the circulating, red blood cells. Organized into 13 chapters, this edition starts with an overview of the discovery of red blood cells, which results in the growth of knowledge in the areas of clinical disease and therapeutic efforts. This book then discusses the significant functions of the red blood cells, which exists basically to transport the respiratory gases. Other chapters examine the red blood cell’s capacity for protein synthesis and its ability to diversify its function. This book discusses as well the progress in the structural analysis of lipids. The final chapter deals with the capacity to store red blood cells frozen for long periods with high yield of viable physiological functional cells after post-thaw processing. Scientists, physicians, teachers, researchers, and students will find this book extremely useful.