The Porphyrin Handbook, Volume 15: Phthalocyanines: Synthesis provides information pertinent to every aspect of the chemistry, synthesis, spectroscopy, and structure of phthalocyanines. This book examines the biology and medical implications of porphyrin systems. Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the importance of compounds such as heme and chlorophyll that play vital roles in the biological systems responsible for the transportation of oxygen to cells in the body. This text then explores the different methods used for the preparation of phthalocyanine and its metallated derivatives. Other chapters consider the detailed survey of phthalocyanine formation, characterization, and purification. This book discusses as well the synthesis of low-symmetry phthalocyanines and related compounds. The final chapter deals with a survey of the structure, synthesis, and physiochemical properties of porphyrazines with annulated heterocycles. This book is a valuable resource for research scientists, engineers, and clinicians.