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## Theory and Practice

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Preface

Acknowledgements

1. A Brief Description of the Blast-Furnace Process

1.1 Raw Materials

1.2 Products

1.3 Operation

1.4 Improvements in Productivity

1.5 Blast-Furnace Costs

1.6 Summary

Problems

2. A Look Inside the Furnace

2.1 Behaviour in Front of the Tuyères

2.2 Reactions in the Hearth, Tuyère Raceways and Bosh

2.3 The Fusion Zone

2.4 Reduction Above the Fusion Zone

2.5 Kinetics of the Coke Gasification Reaction

2.6 Reactions in Regions above the 1200 K Isotherm

2.7 Reduction of Higher Oxides

2.8 The Top Quarter of the Shaft and the Exit Gas

2.9 Residence Times

2.10 Burden Arrangements

2.11 Summary

Problems

3. Thermodynamics of the Blast-Furnace Process: Enthalpies and Equilibria

3.1 Enthalpy Requirements in the Blast Furnace

3.2 Critical Hearth Temperature

3.3 Temperature Profiles in the Furnace: The Thermal Reserve Zone

3.4 Free Energy Considerations in the Blast Furnace: The Approach to Equilibrium

3.5 Gas Composition Profiles in the Furnace: The Chemical Reserve Zone

3.6 Summary

Problems

4. Blast-Furnace Stoichiometry

4.1 The Stoichiometric Development

4.2 The Stoichiometric Equation

4.3 Calculations

4.4 Graphical Representation of the Stoichiometric Balance

4.5 Summary

Problems

5. Development of a Model Framework: Simplified Blast-Furnace Enthalpy Balance

5.1 Simplifications for an Initial Enthalpy Balance

5.2 The Enthalpy Balance

5.3 Heat Supply and Heat Demand

5.4 A General Enthalpy Framework

5.5 Summary

Problems

6. The Model Framework: Combination of Stoichiometric and Enthalpy Equations

6.1 Combining Stoichiometric and Enthalpy Equations: Calculations

6.2 Graphical Representation of the Combined Stoichiometric-Enthalpy Equation

6.3 A Graphical Calculation

6.4 Summary and Discussion of Stoichiometry/Enthalpy Graph

Problems

7. Completion of the Stoichiometric Part of the Model: Conceptual Division of the Blast Furnace through the Chemical Reserve Zone

7.1 The Blast Furnace as Two Separate Reactors

7.2 Stoichiometric Balances for the Bottom Segment

7.3 Stoichiometric Equation for the Wustite Reduction Zone

7.4 Discussion and Summary

Problems

8. Enthalpy Balance for the Bottom Segment of the Furnace

8.1 Enthalpy Balance for the Bottom Segment

8.2 The Demand-Supply Form of the Enthalpy Equation

8.3 Numerical Development

8.4 Summary

Problems

9. Combining Bottom Segment Stoichiometry and Enthalpy Equations: A Priori Calculation of Operating Parameters

9.1 Example Calculations

9.2 Implications of the Equations

9.3 Graphical Representation of the Equations

9.4 A Graphical Calculation

9.5 Characteristics of the Operating Line

9.6 Summary

Problems

10. Testing of the Mathematical Model and a Discussion of its Premises

10.1 Testing for Thermal Validity

10.2 Top-Gas Temperature Calculation

10.3 Testing for Stoichiometric Validity

10.4 Testing for Thermodynamic Validity

10.5 Validity of the Model Assumptions and Predictions

10.6 Non-Attainment of Equilibrium in the Chemical Reserve Zone

10.7 Thermal Reserve Temperature Effects

10.8 Summary

Problems

11. The Effects of Tuyère Injectants on Blast-Furnace Operations

11.1 A General Injectant

11.2 Representing Injected Materials in the Overall Stoichiometric Equation

11.3 Representing Injected Materials in the Bottom Segment Stoichiometric Equation

11.4 Representing Injected Materials in the Bottom Segment Enthalpy Equation

11.5 A Form Convenient for Calculations

11.6 Example Calculations: I. Oxygen Enrichment

11.7 Example Calculations: II. Hydrocarbon Injection

11.8 Graphical Calculations (General Case)

11.9 Top-Gas Composition with Hydrogen Injection

11.10 Discussion of Injection Calculations and Summary

Problems

12. Addition of Details into the Operating Equations: Heat Losses; Reduction of Si and Mn; Dissolution of Carbon; Formation of Slag; Decomposition of Carbonates

12.1 Stoichiometric Effects

12.2 Enthalpy Effects

12.3 Summary

Problems

13. Summary of Blast-Furnace-Operating Equations: Comparison between Predictions and Practice

13.1 Summary of Model Development Steps

13.2 A Strategy for Computer Calculation

13.3 Comparison of Model Predictions with Industrial Blast-Furnace Data

13.4 Effects of Blast Temperature, Tuyère Injectants, Metallized Ore and Metal Impurities on Coke and Blast Requirements

13.5 Summary

14. Blast-Furnace Optimization by Linear Programming

14.1 A Simplified Optimization Problem

14.2 Graphical Representation of Cost Minimization

14.3 Analytical Optimization Methods

14.4 Computer Inputs and Outputs

14.5 A More Complete Problem

14.6 Summary

Problems

Appendix I Tuyère Flame Temperature Calculations

AI.1 Flame Temperature Equations for Linear Programming

AI.2 Additional Items in the Calculations

Appendix II Representing Complex Tuyère Injectants in the Operating Equations

AII.1 Gaseous Injectants with Known Heats of Combustion and Chemical Compositions

AII.2 Injectants with Known Weight Percentages of Carbon and Hydrogen and Known Heats of Combustion

Appendix III Slag Heat Demands

Appendix IV Stoichiometric Data for Minerals and Compounds in Ironmaking

Appendix V Enthalpies of Formation at Temperature T from Elements at Temperature T (HfT)

Appendix VI Enthalpy Increment Equations for Elements and Compounds, [ΗºT — Hº298]

Appendix VII Numerical Values of EB, Blast Enthalpy

Answers to Numerical Problems

List of Symbols

Index

### D. W. Hopkins

### W. G. Davenport

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1st Edition - January 1, 1979

Authors: J. G. Peacey, W. G. Davenport

Editor: D. W. Hopkins

eBook ISBN:

9 7 8 - 1 - 4 8 3 1 - 4 6 7 8 - 2

The Iron Blast Furnace: Theory and Practice presents the significant role of iron blast furnace by which iron is efficiently and rapidly reduced from ore and it is the basis for… Read more

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The Iron Blast Furnace: Theory and Practice presents the significant role of iron blast furnace by which iron is efficiently and rapidly reduced from ore and it is the basis for all primary steelmaking. This book discusses the importance of blast-furnace process as a complete operation. Organized into 14 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the existing experimental, theoretical, and operational evidence about the blast furnace. This text then examines the blast furnace from the outside, including its size, production rate, products, raw materials, operation, and costs. Other chapters consider the primary objective of the blast furnace to produce molten iron of constant composition. This book discusses as well the operation of the furnace from the point of view of what happens to the raw materials after they enter the furnace. The final chapter deals with the linear programming methods by using the known physical constraints on industrial furnaces. This book is a valuable resource for engineers.

Preface

Acknowledgements

1. A Brief Description of the Blast-Furnace Process

1.1 Raw Materials

1.2 Products

1.3 Operation

1.4 Improvements in Productivity

1.5 Blast-Furnace Costs

1.6 Summary

Problems

2. A Look Inside the Furnace

2.1 Behaviour in Front of the Tuyères

2.2 Reactions in the Hearth, Tuyère Raceways and Bosh

2.3 The Fusion Zone

2.4 Reduction Above the Fusion Zone

2.5 Kinetics of the Coke Gasification Reaction

2.6 Reactions in Regions above the 1200 K Isotherm

2.7 Reduction of Higher Oxides

2.8 The Top Quarter of the Shaft and the Exit Gas

2.9 Residence Times

2.10 Burden Arrangements

2.11 Summary

Problems

3. Thermodynamics of the Blast-Furnace Process: Enthalpies and Equilibria

3.1 Enthalpy Requirements in the Blast Furnace

3.2 Critical Hearth Temperature

3.3 Temperature Profiles in the Furnace: The Thermal Reserve Zone

3.4 Free Energy Considerations in the Blast Furnace: The Approach to Equilibrium

3.5 Gas Composition Profiles in the Furnace: The Chemical Reserve Zone

3.6 Summary

Problems

4. Blast-Furnace Stoichiometry

4.1 The Stoichiometric Development

4.2 The Stoichiometric Equation

4.3 Calculations

4.4 Graphical Representation of the Stoichiometric Balance

4.5 Summary

Problems

5. Development of a Model Framework: Simplified Blast-Furnace Enthalpy Balance

5.1 Simplifications for an Initial Enthalpy Balance

5.2 The Enthalpy Balance

5.3 Heat Supply and Heat Demand

5.4 A General Enthalpy Framework

5.5 Summary

Problems

6. The Model Framework: Combination of Stoichiometric and Enthalpy Equations

6.1 Combining Stoichiometric and Enthalpy Equations: Calculations

6.2 Graphical Representation of the Combined Stoichiometric-Enthalpy Equation

6.3 A Graphical Calculation

6.4 Summary and Discussion of Stoichiometry/Enthalpy Graph

Problems

7. Completion of the Stoichiometric Part of the Model: Conceptual Division of the Blast Furnace through the Chemical Reserve Zone

7.1 The Blast Furnace as Two Separate Reactors

7.2 Stoichiometric Balances for the Bottom Segment

7.3 Stoichiometric Equation for the Wustite Reduction Zone

7.4 Discussion and Summary

Problems

8. Enthalpy Balance for the Bottom Segment of the Furnace

8.1 Enthalpy Balance for the Bottom Segment

8.2 The Demand-Supply Form of the Enthalpy Equation

8.3 Numerical Development

8.4 Summary

Problems

9. Combining Bottom Segment Stoichiometry and Enthalpy Equations: A Priori Calculation of Operating Parameters

9.1 Example Calculations

9.2 Implications of the Equations

9.3 Graphical Representation of the Equations

9.4 A Graphical Calculation

9.5 Characteristics of the Operating Line

9.6 Summary

Problems

10. Testing of the Mathematical Model and a Discussion of its Premises

10.1 Testing for Thermal Validity

10.2 Top-Gas Temperature Calculation

10.3 Testing for Stoichiometric Validity

10.4 Testing for Thermodynamic Validity

10.5 Validity of the Model Assumptions and Predictions

10.6 Non-Attainment of Equilibrium in the Chemical Reserve Zone

10.7 Thermal Reserve Temperature Effects

10.8 Summary

Problems

11. The Effects of Tuyère Injectants on Blast-Furnace Operations

11.1 A General Injectant

11.2 Representing Injected Materials in the Overall Stoichiometric Equation

11.3 Representing Injected Materials in the Bottom Segment Stoichiometric Equation

11.4 Representing Injected Materials in the Bottom Segment Enthalpy Equation

11.5 A Form Convenient for Calculations

11.6 Example Calculations: I. Oxygen Enrichment

11.7 Example Calculations: II. Hydrocarbon Injection

11.8 Graphical Calculations (General Case)

11.9 Top-Gas Composition with Hydrogen Injection

11.10 Discussion of Injection Calculations and Summary

Problems

12. Addition of Details into the Operating Equations: Heat Losses; Reduction of Si and Mn; Dissolution of Carbon; Formation of Slag; Decomposition of Carbonates

12.1 Stoichiometric Effects

12.2 Enthalpy Effects

12.3 Summary

Problems

13. Summary of Blast-Furnace-Operating Equations: Comparison between Predictions and Practice

13.1 Summary of Model Development Steps

13.2 A Strategy for Computer Calculation

13.3 Comparison of Model Predictions with Industrial Blast-Furnace Data

13.4 Effects of Blast Temperature, Tuyère Injectants, Metallized Ore and Metal Impurities on Coke and Blast Requirements

13.5 Summary

14. Blast-Furnace Optimization by Linear Programming

14.1 A Simplified Optimization Problem

14.2 Graphical Representation of Cost Minimization

14.3 Analytical Optimization Methods

14.4 Computer Inputs and Outputs

14.5 A More Complete Problem

14.6 Summary

Problems

Appendix I Tuyère Flame Temperature Calculations

AI.1 Flame Temperature Equations for Linear Programming

AI.2 Additional Items in the Calculations

Appendix II Representing Complex Tuyère Injectants in the Operating Equations

AII.1 Gaseous Injectants with Known Heats of Combustion and Chemical Compositions

AII.2 Injectants with Known Weight Percentages of Carbon and Hydrogen and Known Heats of Combustion

Appendix III Slag Heat Demands

Appendix IV Stoichiometric Data for Minerals and Compounds in Ironmaking

Appendix V Enthalpies of Formation at Temperature T from Elements at Temperature T (HfT)

Appendix VI Enthalpy Increment Equations for Elements and Compounds, [ΗºT — Hº298]

Appendix VII Numerical Values of EB, Blast Enthalpy

Answers to Numerical Problems

List of Symbols

Index

- No. of pages: 266
- Language: English
- Edition: 1
- Published: January 1, 1979
- Imprint: Pergamon
- eBook ISBN: 9781483146782

DH

Affiliations and expertise

University College of Swansea, UKWD

Professor William George Davenport is a graduate of the University of British Columbia and the Royal School of Mines, London. Prior to his academic career he worked with the Linde Division of Union Carbide in Tonawanda, New York. He spent a combined 43 years of teaching at McGill University and the University of Arizona.

His Union Carbide days are recounted in the book Iron Blast Furnace, Analysis, Control and Optimization (English, Chinese, Japanese, Russian and Spanish editions).

During the early years of his academic career he spent his summers working in many of Noranda Mines Company’s metallurgical plants, which led quickly to the book Extractive Metallurgy of Copper. This book has gone into five English language editions (with several printings) and Chinese, Farsi and Spanish language editions.

He also had the good fortune to work in Phelps Dodge’s Playas flash smelter soon after coming to the University of Arizona. This experience contributed to the book Flash Smelting, with two English language editions and a Russian language edition and eventually to the book Sulfuric Acid Manufacture (2006), 2nd edition 2013.

In 2013 co-authored Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals, which took him to all the continents except Antarctica.

He and four co-authors are just finishing up the book Rare Earths: Science, Technology, Production and Use, which has taken him around the United States, Canada and France, visiting rare earth mines, smelters, manufacturing plants, laboratories and recycling facilities.

Professor Davenport’s teaching has centered on ferrous and non-ferrous extractive metallurgy. He has visited (and continues to visit) about 10 metallurgical plants per year around the world to determine the relationships between theory and industrial practice. He has also taught plant design and economics throughout his career and has found this aspect of his work particularly rewarding. The delight of his life at the university has, however, always been academic advising of students on a one-on-one basis.

Professor Davenport is a Fellow (and life member) of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum and a twenty-five year member of the (U.S.) Society of Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration. He is recipient of the CIM Alcan Award, the TMS Extractive Metallurgy Lecture Award, the AusIMM Sir George Fisher Award, the AIME Mineral Industry Education Award, the American Mining Hall of Fame Medal of Merit and the SME Milton E. Wadsworth award. In September 2014 he will be honored by the Conference of Metallurgists’ Bill Davenport Honorary Symposium in Vancouver, British Columbia (his home town).

Affiliations and expertise

University of Arizona, AZ, USA