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The Growing of Sugar Cane
1st Edition - January 1, 1963
Author: Roger P. Humbert
9 7 8 - 1 - 4 8 3 2 - 7 5 1 8 - 5
The Growing of Sugar Cane develops the fundamental principles of the growing of cane in the hope that cane culture throughout the world will benefit by it. The tremendous strides… Read more
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The Growing of Sugar Cane develops the fundamental principles of the growing of cane in the hope that cane culture throughout the world will benefit by it. The tremendous strides made in recent years in the knowledge of how to improve the growing of sugar cane, form the subject of this treatise. Cane growing is not a science. As the results of research replace tradition and guesswork, yields are expected to continue to rise. The book opens with a chapter on the factors that affect sugar cane growth. This is followed by separate chapters on seedbed preparation, sugar cane planting, the nutrition and irrigation of sugar cane, drainage, weed control, flowering control, ripening and maturity, harvesting and transportation, and pest and disease control.
IntroductionIntroductionChapter I. Factors Affecting the Growth of Sugar Cane The Soil as a Factor in Sugar Cane Growth Physical Properties of Soils Chemical Properties of Soils The Soil Microbiological Populations Soil-Plant Relationships and Cane Growth Factors Affecting the Growth of Roots Root Systems of Ratoon Crops Temperature Effects on Root Growth Aeration in Relation to Root Growth Soil Moisture in Relation to Root Growth Soil Acidity in Relation to Root Growth Fertilizers in Relation to Root Growth Cultivation in Relation to Root Growth Wind in Relation to Root Growth Importance of Root Studies The Stalk The Leaves Climatic Factors and Cane Growth Effects of Temperature and Sunlight on Cane Growth Moisture and Cane Growth Frost Damage Spanish SummaryChapter II. Seedbed Preparation Deep Tillage Requirements of a Good Seedbed Improving Physical Conditions of Heavy Clay and Sandy Soils with Organic Materials Soil Compaction Root Studies in Compacted Soils Reconditioning of Compacted and Puddled Soils Good Plowing a Must for Good Soil Tilth Final Preparation of Seedbed for Cane Disking, Rolling and Harrowing for Surface Soil Preparation Effects of Post-Planting Traffic Land Leveling for the Best Seedbed Cultivation to Retain Good Tilth Green Manure Crops Chemicals for Conditioning Spanish SummaryChapter III. Planting of Sugar Cane External Factors and Germination Temperature Moisture Soil Tilth Seed Treatment Plant Disease-Free Seed Pre-Fertilizing Seed-Cane Planting in Furrows or on Beds Depth of Planting Internal Factors and Germination Plant Population Studies Quantity of Seed Used Spaced Planting Strip Planting for Erosion Control Pre-Germination and Transplant of Seed-Cane Replanting Precautions and Recommendations in Using PMA Spanish SummaryChapter IV. the Nutrition of Sugar Cane General Nutrient Uptake Factors Influencing the Chemical Composition Climate and Chemical Composition Fertilization of Sugar Cane Trace-Element Nutrition Trace-Element Composition of Sugar Cane Plant Analyses and Crop Logging Analyses of Early Experiences in Crop Logging Expansion of Crop Logging in Hawaii Stalk Tissues More Sensitive for N and P Needs Leaf Sheath and 8-10 Stalk Potassium Equal Chemical Composition of Plant Tissue Crop-Log Sampling Procedures Analytical Procedures Effects of Climate on Composition of Sugar Cane Total Plant Food Applied in Hawaii Methods of Application Number of Applications Completion Time for Fertilization Total Pounds of Nitrogen Applied Pounds of Nitrogen in First Application Total Pounds of Phosphate Applied Total Pounds of Potash Applied Number of Applications with Potash Pounds of Potash in First Application Summary of Fertilization Practices in Hawaii Plant Analyses vs. Soil Tests Field Experimentation to Correlate Soil and Plant Analyses with Yields Balanced Feeding Fertilizer Placement Fertilization by Aircraft Fertilization in Irrigation Water Ammonia Fertilizer for Sugar Cane Application in Irrigation Water Application by Injection Equipment Solid vs. Liquid Fertilizers Progress in 50 Years Since 1900 Spanish SummaryChapter V. Irrigation of Sugar Cane Water and Its Relation to Soils and Sugar Cane History of Irrigation Investigations in Hawaii The Intake and Storage of Water by Soil Moisture-Holding Properties of Soils Moisture within the Plant Role of Water in Physiology of Plants Moisture Removal by Sugar Cane Measurement of Water Deficit in Plants Drought Tolerance of Sugar Cane Experiment 'MASI' Irrigation Interval Control Bouyoucos Blocks Tensiometers Planning Field Layouts Irrigation Systems The Herringbone System Level Ditch System Continuous Long-Line System Water Distribution Studies Results of Radio Rubidium Tests Volume of Water Discharge Line Slope Measuring Water Infiltration in Furrows Furrow Shapes and Layouts Flumes and Flume Outlets Overhead Irrigation Rate of Water Application Semi-Permanent Systems under Test Water Development Economics of Water Development Cane Pushback Machines in Operation in Hawaii Plant Diseases and Irrigation Relationships Management Practices Affecting Watersheds Moisture Conservation in Unirrigated Districts Delivery of Water to the Cane Fields Water Losses from Seepage Water Quality Water Costs Spanish SummaryChapter VI. Drainage Soil Aeration Role of Soil Aeration in Nutrient Uptake Soil Aeration and Chemical Reactions in Soil Aeration and Soil Biology Mechanics and Soil Aeration Waterlogged Soils Behavior of Sugar Cane under Waterlogged Conditions Drainage and Root Systems Soil Water and Root Development Effect of Drainage on Soil Temperature Effect of Drainage on Disease Resistance Wet Soil and Its Agricultural Implications Removing Excess Water from Soils Drainage of Irrigated Lands Topography and Drainage The Soil Factor and Drainage Water Table Studies Depth of Water Table Effects of Salinity upon Plant Growth Salinity and Drainage Salinity Problems in Sugar Cane Fields Salinity Problems and Height of Water Table Water Quality Design of Drainage Systems Soil Improvement and Drainage Designs Trash Conservation as Surface Mulches Mole Drains Pumping as an Aid to Drainage Diversion and Interceptor Ditches Tidal Marsh Drainage Maintenance of Drains Effectiveness of Drainage Systems Influence of Drainage on Sugar Yields The Louisiana Banks System Land Smoothing for Improved Drainage Engineering Aspects of Land Drainage Machinery for Soil Drainage Spanish SummaryChapter VII. Weed Control Losses Caused by Weeds Association of Weeds with Sugar Cane Competition between Sugar Cane and Weeds Methods of Preventing the Introduction and Spread of Weeds Control vs. Eradication Methods of Control Comparison of Weed Control Methods Chemical Weed Control in Hawaii Application of Herbicides Herbicides and Their Modes of Action Effects of Herbicides on Sugar Cane Tolerance to Herbicides Spray Drift of Herbicides Weed Control Schedules Weed Control on Field Edges Weeds of Irrigation Ditches and Drainage Canals Formulations and Mixing Plants Weed Control in Wet Areas and in Wet Seasons Costs of Weed Control Hazards and Precautions Woody Plant Control Weed Control in Other Sugar-Producing Countries Weed Control in Mexico Weed Control in Louisiana Weed Control in Mauritius Weed Control in Puerto Rico Weed Control in Other Producing Areas Machinery for Applying Herbicides Herbicide Tests Training and Supervision of Personnel Spanish SummaryChapter VIII. Control of Flowering Photoperiodism Photoperiodic Control of Flowering Light Intensity and Duration Flowering in Relation to Day Length Selection of Varieties for Specific Photoperiods Physiology of Flowering Age in Relation to Flowering The Inducement of Flowering Control of Flowering with Light Suppression of Flowering with Fertilizers Control of Flowering by Irrigation Management Control of Flowering with Chemicals Effects of Flowering on Growth Tasseling Effect on Yield Spanish SummaryChapter IX. Ripening and Maturity Effects of Climatic Factors on Maturity Nutritional Aspects of Ripening Nitrogen and Juice Quality Phosphate and Juice Quality Potash and Juice Quality Excess Salts and Juice Quality Sugar Formation and Storage Juice Quality-Moisture Stress Relationships Translocation Affected by Moisture Stress Loss of Moisture in Sugar Cane Age in Relation to Maturity Dead Cane at Harvest Effect of Irrigation following Droughts Cane Mortality in Areas of Poor Drainage Varieties, Maturity and Mortality Field Practices and Stalk Mortality Preharvest Sampling for Scheduling Harvests8-10 Stalk Sampling Methods of Maturity Determination Sucrose-Fiber Ratio Cane Ripening in Hawaii Cane Ripening in Mexico Ripening Sugar Cane with Chemicals Desiccating Cane Foliage for Better Burns Spanish SummaryChapter X. Harvesting and Transport of Sugar Cane Mechanization of Cane Agriculture Mechanical Harvesting Land Preparation for Mechanical Harvesting Dirty Cane Costly Losses from Wet Weather Harvesting Rock Removal High Flotation Tires Look Promising Mechanical Loading of Handcut Cane Mechanization of Cane Transportation Burning of Cane Prior to Harvest Length of Grinding Season To Mechanize or Not Spanish SummaryChapter XI. Control of Pests and Diseases Bacterial Diseases Gumming Disease Leaf Scald Virus Diseases Mosaic Disease Chlorotic Streak Ratoon Stunting Disease Diseases of the Leaves, Sheaths and Stalks Ring Spot Red Rot Pokkah Boeng Eye Spot Brown Stripe Pineapple Disease Root Diseases Pythium Root Rot Other Diseases Fiji Disease Sclerospora Disease Quarantine Plant Nutrition in Relation to Cane Diseases Insects and Rats Know Who Your Insect Immigrants are Rat Control Migration of Rats Cane Damage Poisons Seasonal Fluctuations Formulas Air Application of Rat Poisons Rat Control for Variety Tests Coloring of Baits Insects Sugar-Cane Leaf Hopper Leafroller Sugar-Cane Scale Insect Cutworms and Armyworms Sugar-Cane Aphis Mealybugs Sugar-Cane Borer Termites Froghoppers The Beetles Nematode Populations in Sugar-Cane Soils Fumigation Influence of Soil Population Fumigant and Fungicide Residues Fumigation Effects on Nutrient Availability Shipments of Beneficial Insects Problems Associated with Overproduction Spanish SummaryAppendix HSPA-Modified TRUOG Method for Determination of Available Phosphorus in SoilsReferencesAuthor IndexSubject Index