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Preface

List of General Symbols

I Introduction to the Problems of Flow Separation

Symbols

1 Mechanics of Row Separation

1.1 Classical Concept of Onset of Flow Separation Over a Smooth Curved Body Surface

1.2 Examples of Subsonic Flow Separation

1.3 Wake Flow at High Speeds

1.4 Flow Separation by Shock Interaction

2 Modem Development of Flow Separation Theory

2.1 Three-Dimensional Separation: Generalized Concept of Flow Separation

3 Mechanics of the Separated Flow

3.1 Difference Between Subsonic and Supersonic Separated Flow

3.2 Separated Flow Induced by Steps at Supersonic Free Stream Speeds

3.3 Effect of Heat Transfer on the Separated Flow

3.4 Base Pressure

3.5 Flow Separation on a Protruding Thin Probe Mounted in Front of a Blunt Body at High Speeds

4 Analysis of Flow Separation

4.1 Boundary Layer Theory

4.2 Crocco-Lees' Mixing Theory

References

II Steady Separation of Incompressible Laminar Flow From Two-Dimensional Surfaces

Symbols

1 Examples of Two-Dimensional Steady Laminar Flow Separation

2 Analytical Methods for Prediction of Laminar Flow Separation

2.1 Pohlhausen's Method

2.2 Loitsianski's Method

2.3 Von Karman-Millikan Method

2.4 Von Doenhoff's Method

2.5 Stratford's Method

2.6 Shvets' Method

2.7 Thwaites-Curle and Skan Method

2.8 Comparison of Several Methods

2.9 Prandtl's Method

2.10 Tani's Method

2.11 Howarth's Method

2.12 Görtier's Method

3 Discussion

References

III Steady Incompressible Laminar Flow Separation on Bodies of Revolution and Other Three-Dimensional Solid Configurations

Symbols

1 Three-Dimensional Laminar Flow Separation

2 Discussion

3 Laminar Flow Separation on a Body of Revolution and a Delta Wing

3.1 Mangler's Transformation

3.2 Laminar Separation on a Yawed Cylinder

3.3 Laminar Separation on Cone at Angles of Attack

3.4 Separation of Flow on a Delta Wing

References

IV Incompressible Turbulent Flow Separation

Symbols

1 Calculation of Momentum Thickness

1.1 Truckenbrodt's Method

1.2 Rotta's Method

2 Criteria of External Incompressible Two-Dimensional Turbulent Flow Separation

2.1 External Flow Separation

3 Internal Flow Separation

3.1 Straight-Walled Two-Dimensional Subsonic Diffusers

3.2 Curved-Wall Two-Dimensional Subsonic Diffusers

3.3 Optimiun Design of Diffusers

4 Axially Synmietric and Three-Dimensional Steady Incompressible Flow Separation

4.1 Three-Dimensional External Flow Separation

4.2 Axial-Symmetric Internal Flow

4.3 Three-Dimensional Flow Over a Rotating Body

4.4 Experiments on Three-Dimensional Flow Separation

4.5 Relationship Between Pressure and Friction Drag on an Axial-Symmetric Afterbody Involving Separation

References

V Unsteady Incompressible Flow Separation

Symbols

1 Boundary Layer Separation After Impulsive Start of Motion

1.1 Two-Dimensional Unsteady Separation

1.2 Separation Over a Circular Cylinder

1.3 Separation Over an Elliptic Cylinder

1.4 Separation on a Rotating Cylinder

2 Axially Symmetric Unsteady Separation

2.1 Unsteady Flow Separation Over a Sphere

3 Boundary Layer Separation with Constant Acceleration

3.1 Flow Separation Over a Circular Cylinder with Constant Acceleration

4 Laminar Separation from a Moving Wall

References

VI Compressible Flow Separation

Symbols

1 Determination of Compressible Laminar Flow Separation Point Without Interaction

1.1 Howarth's Method

1.2 Loftin and Wilson's Method

1.3 Morduchow and Clarke's Method

2 Nature and Characteristics of Shock-Induced Separated Flows and their Influences Up- and Downstream

2.1 Laminar Flow on a Flat Surface

2.2 Turbulent Flow on an Airfoil

2.3 Steps

2.4 Normal and Nearly Normal Shock

3 Pressure Rise Involving Shock Interaction

3.1 Pressure Rise Required to Provoke Separation

3.2 Pressure Rise to Constant Separated Pressure (Plateau Pressure Rise)

4 Analysis of Shock-Induced Separation

4.1 Crocco's Theory

4.2 Donaldson's and Lange's Analysis

4.3 Analysis of Hakkinen et al.

4.4 Lees' and Reeves' Analysis

References

IVI Characteristics of Separated Flows

Symbols

1 Separated Flows Over and Behind Two-Dimensional Surfaces and Axial Symmetric Bodies

1.1 Incompressible Separated Flow

1.2 Acoustic Radiation from a Cutout

1.3 Experimental Investigations of Compressible Separated Flow

1.4 Analysis of Separated Flow at Supersonic Speed

2 Separation Bubbles

2.1 General Features of Separation Bubbles

2.2 Detailed Features of Separation Bubbles

References

VIII Wake Flow

Symbols

1 Wake Flow at Subsonic Speeds

1.1 Laminar Wake Flow

1.2 Turbulent Wake Flows

2 Wake Flow at Supersonic and Hypersonic Speeds

2.1 Mechanics of the Aero-Thermal Flow of Wake at Supersonic/Hypersonic Speeds

2.2 Characteristics of Wake at High Speeds

2.3 Analysis of Wake Flow at High Speeds

References

IX Leading-Edge Flow Separation

Symbols

1 Leading-Edge Flow Separation at Subsonic Speeds

1.1 Mechanics of the Leading-Edge Separation

2 Criterion of the Laminar Leading-Edge Flow Separation

3 Bursting of the Leading-Edge Vortices

3.1 Bursting of Steady Leading-Edge Vortices

3.2 Bursting of the Leading-Edge Vortices on Wings

4 Leading-Edge Flow Separation at Supersonic Speeds

4.1 Chapman-Brower's Theory

4.2 Leading-Edge Effect on Separated Supersonic Flow

5 Flow Separation on Thin Protruding Probes Placed in Front of Blunt Bodies at Supersonic/Hypersonic Speeds

5.1 Practical Application

5.2 Mechanics of Flow Separation Over Protruding Probes at High Speeds

5.3 Flow Separation Over Two-Dimensional Thick Plates with Protruding Plates

5.4 Flow Separation Over an Axiaily Symmetric Blunt Body with a Protruding Spike at Zero Incidence

5.5 Flow Separation Affected by Various Shapes of Blimt Body and Probe at Angles of Attack

References

X Base Pressure

Symbols

1 Base Pressure at Subsonic Speeds

1.1 Analysis of Base Pressure of a Bluff Body at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds

2 Base Pressure at Supersonic Speeds

2.1 Base Pressure Variation with Reynolds Numbers

2.2 Base Pressure Affected by Body Surface Temperature, Boat-Tail Angle, and Mach Number

2.3 Calculation of the Base Pressure

3 Experiment on Base Pressure Behind a Two-Dimensional Surface

4 Analysis of Base Pressure Behind a Two-Dimensional Surface

4.1 Crocco-Lees' Mixing Theory for the Determination of the Base Pressure

4.2 Korst's Theory for Base Pressure

4.3 Karashima's Theory on Base Pressure

4.4 Nash's Analysis for Turbulent Base Pressure

References

XI Thermal Effects on Separation of Flow

Symbols

1 Physics of Heat Transfer in Separation

2 Heat Transfer Effect on Separation at Subsonic Speeds

2.1 Heat Transfer at the Rear of a Flat Plate

2.2 Heat Transfer Around a Circular Cylinder Placed Normal to an Air Stream and a Sphere

2.3 Heat Transfer in the Separated Flow Behind Steps

3 Position of Compressible Flow Separation

3.1 Position of Separation Point

3.2 Experimental Investigation of Effect of Heat Transfer on Compressible Laminar Flow Separation

4 Heat Transfer on Separated Flow at Supersonic and Hypersonic Speeds

4.1 Heat Transfer Over a Sphere at Supersonic Speeds

4.2 Heat Transfer Effect on Separated Flow Induced by Steps, Cut-Outs, and Cylinders Protruded from the Body Surface at Supersonic and Hypersonic Speeds

4.3 Heat Transfer Effect on Vortex Bursting

4.4 Heat Transfer Effect of Separated Flow on a Spike

5 Analysis of Heat Transfer Effects on Separated Flow

5.1 Incompressible Solution for Reattachment Zone

5.2 Chapman's Theory of Heat Transfer in Regions of Separated Flow

5.3 Carlson's Analysis of Laminar Separated Flow at Hypersonic Speeds

References

ΧII Control of Separation of Flow

Symbols

1 Prevention or Delay of Separation of Flow

1.1 Prevention or Delay of Separation by Geometrical Design of the Body Surface

1.2 Prevention or Delay of Separation by Geometrical Configurations such as Slots, Vortex Generators, Notches, etc.

1.3 Prevention or Delay of Separation by Suction of Boundary Layer

1.4 Reduction of Heat Transfer in Separated Regions and Delay of Separation by Cooling

2 Flow Control by Provoking Separation

2.1 Flow Control by Provoking Separation on Wing at Subsonic Speeds

2.2 Separation Control by Trapped Vortices

2.3 Flow Control by Provoking Separation at Supersonic and Hypersonic Speeds

References

Work Sheets

Author Index

Subject Index

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1st Edition - January 1, 1970

Author: Paul K. Chang

Language: EnglisheBook ISBN:

9 7 8 - 1 - 4 8 3 1 - 8 1 2 8 - 8

Interdisciplinary and Advanced Topics in Science and Engineering, Volume 3: Separation of Flow presents the problem of the separation of fluid flow. This book provides information… Read more

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Interdisciplinary and Advanced Topics in Science and Engineering, Volume 3: Separation of Flow presents the problem of the separation of fluid flow. This book provides information covering the fields of basic physical processes, analyses, and experiments concerning flow separation. Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the flow separation on the body surface as discusses in various classical examples. This text then examines the analytical and experimental results of the laminar boundary layer of steady, two-dimensional flows in the subsonic speed range. Other chapters consider the study of flow separation on the two-dimensional body, flow separation on three-dimensional body shape and particularly on bodies of revolution. This book discusses as well the analytical solutions of the unsteady flow separation. The final chapter deals with the purpose of separation flow control to raise efficiency or to enhance the performance of vehicles and fluid machineries involving various engineering applications. This book is a valuable resource for engineers.

Preface

List of General Symbols

I Introduction to the Problems of Flow Separation

Symbols

1 Mechanics of Row Separation

1.1 Classical Concept of Onset of Flow Separation Over a Smooth Curved Body Surface

1.2 Examples of Subsonic Flow Separation

1.3 Wake Flow at High Speeds

1.4 Flow Separation by Shock Interaction

2 Modem Development of Flow Separation Theory

2.1 Three-Dimensional Separation: Generalized Concept of Flow Separation

3 Mechanics of the Separated Flow

3.1 Difference Between Subsonic and Supersonic Separated Flow

3.2 Separated Flow Induced by Steps at Supersonic Free Stream Speeds

3.3 Effect of Heat Transfer on the Separated Flow

3.4 Base Pressure

3.5 Flow Separation on a Protruding Thin Probe Mounted in Front of a Blunt Body at High Speeds

4 Analysis of Flow Separation

4.1 Boundary Layer Theory

4.2 Crocco-Lees' Mixing Theory

References

II Steady Separation of Incompressible Laminar Flow From Two-Dimensional Surfaces

Symbols

1 Examples of Two-Dimensional Steady Laminar Flow Separation

2 Analytical Methods for Prediction of Laminar Flow Separation

2.1 Pohlhausen's Method

2.2 Loitsianski's Method

2.3 Von Karman-Millikan Method

2.4 Von Doenhoff's Method

2.5 Stratford's Method

2.6 Shvets' Method

2.7 Thwaites-Curle and Skan Method

2.8 Comparison of Several Methods

2.9 Prandtl's Method

2.10 Tani's Method

2.11 Howarth's Method

2.12 Görtier's Method

3 Discussion

References

III Steady Incompressible Laminar Flow Separation on Bodies of Revolution and Other Three-Dimensional Solid Configurations

Symbols

1 Three-Dimensional Laminar Flow Separation

2 Discussion

3 Laminar Flow Separation on a Body of Revolution and a Delta Wing

3.1 Mangler's Transformation

3.2 Laminar Separation on a Yawed Cylinder

3.3 Laminar Separation on Cone at Angles of Attack

3.4 Separation of Flow on a Delta Wing

References

IV Incompressible Turbulent Flow Separation

Symbols

1 Calculation of Momentum Thickness

1.1 Truckenbrodt's Method

1.2 Rotta's Method

2 Criteria of External Incompressible Two-Dimensional Turbulent Flow Separation

2.1 External Flow Separation

3 Internal Flow Separation

3.1 Straight-Walled Two-Dimensional Subsonic Diffusers

3.2 Curved-Wall Two-Dimensional Subsonic Diffusers

3.3 Optimiun Design of Diffusers

4 Axially Synmietric and Three-Dimensional Steady Incompressible Flow Separation

4.1 Three-Dimensional External Flow Separation

4.2 Axial-Symmetric Internal Flow

4.3 Three-Dimensional Flow Over a Rotating Body

4.4 Experiments on Three-Dimensional Flow Separation

4.5 Relationship Between Pressure and Friction Drag on an Axial-Symmetric Afterbody Involving Separation

References

V Unsteady Incompressible Flow Separation

Symbols

1 Boundary Layer Separation After Impulsive Start of Motion

1.1 Two-Dimensional Unsteady Separation

1.2 Separation Over a Circular Cylinder

1.3 Separation Over an Elliptic Cylinder

1.4 Separation on a Rotating Cylinder

2 Axially Symmetric Unsteady Separation

2.1 Unsteady Flow Separation Over a Sphere

3 Boundary Layer Separation with Constant Acceleration

3.1 Flow Separation Over a Circular Cylinder with Constant Acceleration

4 Laminar Separation from a Moving Wall

References

VI Compressible Flow Separation

Symbols

1 Determination of Compressible Laminar Flow Separation Point Without Interaction

1.1 Howarth's Method

1.2 Loftin and Wilson's Method

1.3 Morduchow and Clarke's Method

2 Nature and Characteristics of Shock-Induced Separated Flows and their Influences Up- and Downstream

2.1 Laminar Flow on a Flat Surface

2.2 Turbulent Flow on an Airfoil

2.3 Steps

2.4 Normal and Nearly Normal Shock

3 Pressure Rise Involving Shock Interaction

3.1 Pressure Rise Required to Provoke Separation

3.2 Pressure Rise to Constant Separated Pressure (Plateau Pressure Rise)

4 Analysis of Shock-Induced Separation

4.1 Crocco's Theory

4.2 Donaldson's and Lange's Analysis

4.3 Analysis of Hakkinen et al.

4.4 Lees' and Reeves' Analysis

References

IVI Characteristics of Separated Flows

Symbols

1 Separated Flows Over and Behind Two-Dimensional Surfaces and Axial Symmetric Bodies

1.1 Incompressible Separated Flow

1.2 Acoustic Radiation from a Cutout

1.3 Experimental Investigations of Compressible Separated Flow

1.4 Analysis of Separated Flow at Supersonic Speed

2 Separation Bubbles

2.1 General Features of Separation Bubbles

2.2 Detailed Features of Separation Bubbles

References

VIII Wake Flow

Symbols

1 Wake Flow at Subsonic Speeds

1.1 Laminar Wake Flow

1.2 Turbulent Wake Flows

2 Wake Flow at Supersonic and Hypersonic Speeds

2.1 Mechanics of the Aero-Thermal Flow of Wake at Supersonic/Hypersonic Speeds

2.2 Characteristics of Wake at High Speeds

2.3 Analysis of Wake Flow at High Speeds

References

IX Leading-Edge Flow Separation

Symbols

1 Leading-Edge Flow Separation at Subsonic Speeds

1.1 Mechanics of the Leading-Edge Separation

2 Criterion of the Laminar Leading-Edge Flow Separation

3 Bursting of the Leading-Edge Vortices

3.1 Bursting of Steady Leading-Edge Vortices

3.2 Bursting of the Leading-Edge Vortices on Wings

4 Leading-Edge Flow Separation at Supersonic Speeds

4.1 Chapman-Brower's Theory

4.2 Leading-Edge Effect on Separated Supersonic Flow

5 Flow Separation on Thin Protruding Probes Placed in Front of Blunt Bodies at Supersonic/Hypersonic Speeds

5.1 Practical Application

5.2 Mechanics of Flow Separation Over Protruding Probes at High Speeds

5.3 Flow Separation Over Two-Dimensional Thick Plates with Protruding Plates

5.4 Flow Separation Over an Axiaily Symmetric Blunt Body with a Protruding Spike at Zero Incidence

5.5 Flow Separation Affected by Various Shapes of Blimt Body and Probe at Angles of Attack

References

X Base Pressure

Symbols

1 Base Pressure at Subsonic Speeds

1.1 Analysis of Base Pressure of a Bluff Body at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds

2 Base Pressure at Supersonic Speeds

2.1 Base Pressure Variation with Reynolds Numbers

2.2 Base Pressure Affected by Body Surface Temperature, Boat-Tail Angle, and Mach Number

2.3 Calculation of the Base Pressure

3 Experiment on Base Pressure Behind a Two-Dimensional Surface

4 Analysis of Base Pressure Behind a Two-Dimensional Surface

4.1 Crocco-Lees' Mixing Theory for the Determination of the Base Pressure

4.2 Korst's Theory for Base Pressure

4.3 Karashima's Theory on Base Pressure

4.4 Nash's Analysis for Turbulent Base Pressure

References

XI Thermal Effects on Separation of Flow

Symbols

1 Physics of Heat Transfer in Separation

2 Heat Transfer Effect on Separation at Subsonic Speeds

2.1 Heat Transfer at the Rear of a Flat Plate

2.2 Heat Transfer Around a Circular Cylinder Placed Normal to an Air Stream and a Sphere

2.3 Heat Transfer in the Separated Flow Behind Steps

3 Position of Compressible Flow Separation

3.1 Position of Separation Point

3.2 Experimental Investigation of Effect of Heat Transfer on Compressible Laminar Flow Separation

4 Heat Transfer on Separated Flow at Supersonic and Hypersonic Speeds

4.1 Heat Transfer Over a Sphere at Supersonic Speeds

4.2 Heat Transfer Effect on Separated Flow Induced by Steps, Cut-Outs, and Cylinders Protruded from the Body Surface at Supersonic and Hypersonic Speeds

4.3 Heat Transfer Effect on Vortex Bursting

4.4 Heat Transfer Effect of Separated Flow on a Spike

5 Analysis of Heat Transfer Effects on Separated Flow

5.1 Incompressible Solution for Reattachment Zone

5.2 Chapman's Theory of Heat Transfer in Regions of Separated Flow

5.3 Carlson's Analysis of Laminar Separated Flow at Hypersonic Speeds

References

ΧII Control of Separation of Flow

Symbols

1 Prevention or Delay of Separation of Flow

1.1 Prevention or Delay of Separation by Geometrical Design of the Body Surface

1.2 Prevention or Delay of Separation by Geometrical Configurations such as Slots, Vortex Generators, Notches, etc.

1.3 Prevention or Delay of Separation by Suction of Boundary Layer

1.4 Reduction of Heat Transfer in Separated Regions and Delay of Separation by Cooling

2 Flow Control by Provoking Separation

2.1 Flow Control by Provoking Separation on Wing at Subsonic Speeds

2.2 Separation Control by Trapped Vortices

2.3 Flow Control by Provoking Separation at Supersonic and Hypersonic Speeds

References

Work Sheets

Author Index

Subject Index

- No. of pages: 796
- Language: English
- Edition: 1
- Published: January 1, 1970
- Imprint: Pergamon
- eBook ISBN: 9781483181288

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