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# Process Heat Transfer

## Principles, Applications and Rules of Thumb

- 1st Edition - March 28, 2007
- Authors: Thomas Lestina, Robert W. Serth
- Language: English
- Paperback ISBN:9 7 8 - 1 - 4 9 3 3 - 0 0 9 9 - 0
- Hardback ISBN:9 7 8 - 0 - 1 2 - 3 7 3 5 8 8 - 1
- eBook ISBN:9 7 8 - 0 - 0 8 - 0 5 4 4 4 1 - 0

The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Heat exchangers are devices built for efficient heat transfer from one fluid to another. Th… Read more

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Request a sales quoteThe First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Heat exchangers are devices built for efficient heat transfer from one fluid to another. They are widely used in engineering processes and include examples such as intercoolers, preheaters, boilers and condensers in power plants. Heat exchangers are becoming more and more important to manufacturers striving to control energy costs.

*Process Heat Transfer Rules of Thumb* investigates the design and implementation of industrial heat exchangers. It provides the background needed to understand and master the commercial software packages used by professional engineers for design and analysis of heat exchangers. This book focuses on the types of heat exchangers most widely used by industry, namely shell-and-tube exchangers (including condensers, reboilers and vaporizers), air-cooled heat exchangers and double-pipe (hairpin) exchangers. It provides a substantial introduction to the design of heat exchanger networks using pinch technology, the most efficient strategy used to achieve optimal recovery of heat in industrial processes.

- Utilizes leading commercial software important to professional engineers designing heat exchangers
- Illustrates design procedures using complete step-by-step worked examples
- Provides details on how to develop an initial configuration for a heat exchanger and how to systematically modify it to obtain a final design
- Abundant example problems solved manually and with the integration of computer software

CHAPTER 1. HEAT CONDUCTION

1. Introduction

2. Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction

3. The Heat Conduction Equation

4. Thermal Resistance5

5. The Conduction Shape Factor

6. Unsteady-State Conduction

7. Mechanisms of Heat Conduction

References

Notation

Problems

CHAPTER 2. CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER

1. Introduction

2. Combined Conduction and Convection

3. Extended Surfaces

4. Forced Convection in Pipes and Ducts

5. Forced Convection in External Flow

6. Free Convection

References

Notation

Problems

CHAPTER 3. HEAT EXCHANGERS

1. Introduction

2. Double-Pipe Equipment

3. Shell-And-Tube Equipment

4. The Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficient

5. The LMTD Correction Factor

6. Analysis of Double-Pipe Exchangers

7. Preliminary Design of Shell-And-Tube Exchangers

8. Rating A Shell-And-Tube Exchanger

9. Heat Exchanger Effectiveness

References

Appendix 3-A. Derivation of the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference

Notation

Problems

CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF DOUBLE-PIPE HEAT EXCHANGERS

1. Introduction

2. Heat-Transfer Coefficients for Exchangers Without Fins

3. Hydraulic Calculations for Exchangers Without Fins

4. Series/Parallel Configurations of Hairpins

5. Multi-Tube Exchangers

6. Over-Surface and Over-Design

7. Finned-Pipe Exchangers

7.1. Finned-Pipe Characteristics

7.2. Fin Efficiency

7.3. Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficient

7.4. Flow Area and Equivalent Diameter

8. Heat-Transfer Coefficients and Friction Factors for Finned Annuli

9. Wall Temperature for Finned Pipes

10. Computer Software

10.1 HEXTRAN

10.2 HTFS/Aspen

References

Appendix 4-A. Hydraulic Equations in SI Units

Appendix 4-B. Incremental Analysis

Notation

Problems

CHAPTER 5. DESIGN OF SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXHANGERS

1. Introduction

2. Heat-Transfer Coefficients

3. Hydraulic Calculations

3.1. Tube-Side Pressure Drop

3.2. Shell-Side Pressure Drop

4. Finned Tubing

5. Tube-Count Tables

6. Factors Affecting Pressure Drop

6.1. Tube-Side Pressure Drop

6.2. Shell-Side Pressure Drop

7. Design Guidelines

7.1. Fluid Placement

7.2. Tubing Selection

7.3. Tube Layout

7.4. Tube Passes

7.5. Shell and Head Types

7.6. Baffles and Tubesheets

7.7. Nozzles

7.8. Sealing Strips

8. Design Strategy

9. Computer Software

References

Appendix 5-A. Hydraulic Equations in SI Units

Appendix 5-B. Maximum Tube-Side Fluid Velocities

Appendix 5-C. Maximum Unsupported Tube Lengths

Appendix 5-D. Comparison of Head Types for Shell-and-Tube Exchangers

Notation

Problems

CHAPTER 6. THE DELAWARE METHOD

1. Introduction

2. Ideal Tube Bank Correlations

3. Shell-Side Heat-Transfer Coefficient

4. Shell-Side Pressure Drop

4.1. Calculation of

4.2. Calculation of

4.3. Calculation of

4.4. Summary

5. The Flow Areas

5.1. The Cross-Flow Area

5.2. Tube-to-Baffle Leakage Area

5.3. Shell-to-Baffle Leakage Area

5.4. The Bundle Bypass Flow Area

5.5. The Window Flow Area

6. Correlations for the Correction Factors

6.1. Correction Factor for Baffle Window Flow

6.2. Correction Factors for Baffle Leakage

6.3. Correction Factors for Bundle Bypass Flow

6.4. Correction Factors for Unequal Baffle Spacing

6.5. Laminar Flow Correction Factor

7. Estimation of Clearances

References

Notation

Problems

CHAPTER 7. THE STREAM ANALYSIS METHOD

1. Introduction

2. The Equivalent Hydraulic Network

3. The Hydraulic Equations

3.1. Stream Pressure Drops

3.2. Balanced Pressure Drop Requirements

3.3. Mass Conservation

3.4. Correlations for Flow Resistance Coefficients

3.5. Window Pressure Drop

3.6. Window Friction Factor

3.7. Summary

4. Shell-Side Pressure Drop

5. Shell-Side Heat-Transfer Coefficient

6. Temperature Profile Distortion

7. The Wills-Johnston Method

7.1. Streams and Flow Areas

7.2. Pressure Drops and Stream Flow Rates

7.3. Flow Resistances

7.3.1. The Cross Flow Resistance

7.3.2. The Bypass Flow Resistance

CHAPTER 7. (CONT’D)

7.3.3. The Tube-to-Baffle Leakage Flow Resistance

7.3.4. The Shell-to-Baffle Leakage Flow Resistance

7.3.5. The Window Flow Resistance

7.4. Inlet and outlet Baffle Spaces

7.5. Total Shell-Side Pressure Drop

8. Computer Software

8.1. HTRI

8.2. HTFS/Aspen

References

Notation

Problems

CHAPTER 8. HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORKS

1. Introduction

2. An Example

3. Design Targets

4. The Problem Table

5. Composite Curves

6. The Grand Composite Curve

7. Significance of the Pinch

8. Threshold Problems and Utility Pinches

9. Feasibility Criteria at the Pinch

9.1. Number of Process Streams and Branches

9.2. The CP Inequality

9.3. The CP Difference

9.4. The CP Table

10. Design Strategy

11. Minimum Utility Design for TC3

11.1. Hot End Design

11.2. Cold End Design

11.3. Complete Network Design

12. Network Simplification

12.1. Heat Load Loops

12.2. Heat Load Paths

13. Number of Shells

14. Targeting for Number of Shells

14.1. Graphical Method

14.2. Analytical Method

15. Area Targets

16. The Driving Force Plot

17. Super Targeting

18. Targeting by Linear Programming

19. Computer Software

19.1. HEXTRAN

19.2. HX-Net

References

Notation

Problems

CHAPTER 9. BOILING HEAT TRANSFER

1. Introduction

2. Pool Boiling

3. Correlations for Nucleate Boiling on Horizontal Tubes

3.1. Heat-Transfer Coefficients for Pure Component Nucleate Boiling

on a Single Tube

3.1.1. The Forster-Zuber Correlation

3.1.2. The Mostinski Correlation

3.1.3. The Cooper Correlation

3.1.4. The Stephan-Abdelsalam Correlation

3.2. Mixture Effects

3.3. Convective Effects in Tube Bundles

3.4. Critical Heat Flux

4. Two-Phase Flow

4.1. Two-Phase Flow Regimes

4.2. Pressure Drop Correlations

4.2.1. The Lockhart-Martinelli Correlation

4.2.2. The Chisholm Correlation

4.2.3. The Friedel Correlation

4.2.4. The Müller-Steinhagen and Heck (MSH) Correlation

4.3. Void Fraction and Two-Phase Density

4.3.1. Void Fraction

4.3.2. Homogeneous Flow Model

4.3.3. Lockhart-Martinelli Correlation

4.3.4. The Chisholm Correlation

4.3.5. The CISE Correlation

4.4. Other Losses

4.5. Recommendations

5. Convective Boiling in Tubes

5.1. Boiling Regimes in a Vertical Tube

5.2. The Chen Correlation

5.3. The Gungor-Winterton Correlation

5.4. The Liu-Winterton Correlation

5.5. Other Correlations

5.6. Critical Heat Flux

5.6.1. Vertical Tubes

5.6.2. Horizontal Tubes

6. Film Boiling

References

Notation

Problems

CHAPTER 10. REBOILERS

1. Introduction

2. Types of Reboilers

2.1. Kettle Reboilers

2.2. Vertical Thermosyphon Reboilers

2.3. Horizontal Thermosyphon Reboilers

2.4. Forced Flow Reboilers

2.5. Internal Reboilers

2.6. Recirculating Versus Once-Through Operation

2.7. Reboiler Selection

3. Design of Kettle Reboilers

3.1. Design Strategy

3.2. Mean Temperature Difference

3.3. Fouling Factors

3.4. Number of Nozzles

3.5. Shell Diameter

3.6. Liquid Overflow Reservoir

3.7. Finned Tubing

3.8. Steam as Heating Medium

3.9. Two-Phase Density Calculation

4. Design of Horizontal Thermosyphon Reboilers

4.1. Design Strategy

4.2. Design Guidelines

5. Design of Vertical Thermosyphon Reboilers

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Pressure Balance

5.3. Sensible Heating Zone

5.4. Mist Flow Limit

5.5. Flow Instabilities

5.6. Size Limitations

5.7. Design Strategy

5.7.1. Preliminary Design

5.7.2. Circulation Rate

5.7.3. Stepwise Calculations

6. Computer Software

6.1. HEXTRAN

6.2. HTFS/Aspen

6.3. HTRI

References

Appendix 10-A. Areas of Circular Segments

Notation

Problems

CHAPTER 11. CONDENSERS

1. Introduction

2. Types of Condensers

2.1. Horizontal Shell-Side Condenser

CHAPTER 11. (CONT’D)

2.2. Horizontal Tube-Side Condenser

2.3. Vertical Shell-Side Condenser

2.4. Vertical Tube-Side Downflow Condenser

2.5. Reflux Condenser

3. Condensation on a Vertical Surface: Nusselt Theory

3.1. Condensation on a Plane Wall

3.2. Condensation on Vertical Tubes

4. Condensation on Horizontal Tubes

5. Modifications of Nusselt Theory

5.1. Variable Fluid Properties

5.2. Inclined Surfaces

5.3. Turbulence in Condensate Film

5.4. Superheated Vapor

5.5. Condensate Subcooling

5.6. Interfacial Shear

5.6.1. Condensation in Vertical Tubes with Vapor Upflow

5.6.2. Condensation in Vertical Tubes with Vapor Downflow

5.6.3. Condensation Outside Horizontal Tubes

6. Condensation Inside Horizontal Tubes

6.1. Flow Regimes

6.2. Stratified Flow

6.3. Annular Flow

6.4. Other Flow Regimes

7. Condensation on Finned Tubes

8. Pressure Drop

9. Mean Temperature Difference

10. Multicomponent Condensation

10.1. The General Problem

10.2. The Bell-Ghaly Method

11. Computer Software

References

Appendix 11-A. LMTD Correction Factors for TEMA J- and X-Shells

Appendix 11-B. Other Design Considerations

Notation

Problems

CHAPTER 12. AIR-COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS

1. Introduction

2. Equipment Description

2.1. Overall Configuration

2.2. High-fin Tubing

2.3. Tube Bundle Construction

2.4. Fans and Drivers

2.5. Equipment for Cold Climates

3. Air-Side Heat-Transfer Coefficient

4. Air-Side Pressure Drop 5. Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficient

6. Fan and Motor Sizing

7. Mean Temperature Difference

8. Design Guidelines

8.1. Tubing

8.2. Air flow Distribution

8.3. Design Air Temperature

8.4. Outlet Air Temperature

8.5. Air Velocity

8.6. Construction Standards

9. Design Strategy

10. Computer Software

10.1. HEXTRAN

10.2. HTFS/Aspen

10.3. HTRI

References

Appendix 12-A. LMTD Correction Factors for Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers

Appendix 12-B. Standard U. S. Motor Sizes

Appendix 12-C. Correction of Air Density for Elevation

Notation

Problems

APPENDIX A. THERMOPHSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

APPENDIX B. DIMENSIONS OF PIPE AND TUBING

APPENDIX C. TUBE-COUNT TABLES

APPENDIX D. EQUIVALENT LENGTHS OF PIPE FITTINGS

APPENDIX E. PROPERTIES OF PETROLEUM STREAMS

- No. of pages: 770
- Language: English
- Edition: 1
- Published: March 28, 2007
- Imprint: Academic Press
- Paperback ISBN: 9781493300990
- Hardback ISBN: 9780123735881
- eBook ISBN: 9780080544410

TL

### Thomas Lestina

RS

### Robert W. Serth

*Process Heat Transfer*on ScienceDirect