Probability, Statistics, and Mathematics: Papers in Honor of Samuel Karlin is a collection of papers dealing with probability, statistics, and mathematics. Conceived in honor of Polish-born mathematician Samuel Karlin, the book covers a wide array of topics, from the second-order moments of a stationary Markov chain to the exponentiality of the local time at hitting times for reflecting diffusions. Smoothed limit theorems for equilibrium processes are also discussed. Comprised of 24 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the second-order moments of a stationary Markov chain, paying particular attention to the consequences of the autoregressive structure of the vector-valued process and how to estimate the stationary probabilities from a finite sequence of observations. Subsequent chapters focus on A. Selberg's second beta integral and an integral of mehta; a normal approximation for the number of local maxima of a random function on a graph; nonnegative polynomials on polyhedra; and the fundamental period of the queue with Markov-modulated arrivals. The rate of escape problem for a class of random walks is also considered. This monograph is intended for students and practitioners in the fields of statistics, mathematics, and economics.