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List of Contributors

Foreword

Preface

Contents of Previous and Future Volume

Chapter 1 / Survey of Fundamental Laws

I. Introduction

II. Some Basic Concepts

III. Mass, Amount of Substance, and Composition

IV. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics (Empirical Temperature)

V. Equation of State

VI. Specific, Molar, and Partial Molar Quantities, and Generalized Densities

VII. Work

VIII. First Law of Thermodynamics (Energy and Heat)

IX. Enthalpy

X. Open Systems

XI. Second Law of Thermodynamics (Entropy and Thermodynamic Temperature)

XII. Caratheodory's Approach

XIII. Generalized Gibbs Equation (Chemical Potential)

XIV. Connection between Entropy and Heat

XV. Helmholtz Function and Gibbs Function

XVI. Fundamental Equations

XVII. Relation of Empirical to Thermodynamic Temperature

XVIII. Heat Capacity

XIX. Generalized Gibbs-Duhe Relation

XX. Chemical Reactions

XXI. Galvanic Cells

XXII. Equilibrium

XXIII. Nernst Heat Theorem

XXIV. Unattainability of Absolute Zero

Nomenclature

References

Chapter 2A / Equilibrium, Stability, and Displacements

Introduction

I. Thermodynamic Potentials

II. Affinity

III. Affinity and Thermodynamic Potentials

IV. The Gibbs Chemical Potential

V. The Phase Rule

VI. The Equilibrium Constant

VII. Standard Functions and Functions of Mixing

VIII. Numerical Examples

IX. Real Gases

X. Stability of Chemical Systems

XI. Equilibrium Displacements in Closed Systems

XII. Equilibrium Displacements in Open Systems

XIII. Thermodynamics of Solutions

XIV. Osmotic Pressure

XV. Equilibrum Curves between Two Phases

References

Chapter 2B / Irreversible Processes

I. Introduction

II. Conservation of Energy in Open Systems

III. Equality of Exchange Flow of Energy

IV. Entropy Production in Open Systems

V. Continuous Systems

VI. Transport and Chemical Equations

VII. Stationary States

VIII. Diffusion in Systems at Uniform Temperature

IX. Diffusion in Systems at Nonuniform Temperature

X. Electrokinetic Effects

XI. Entropy Production due to Viscosity

References

Chapter 2C / Thermodynamics of Surfaces

I. Mechanical Properties of an Interface

II. Pressure Tensor in Surface Layers

III. Gibbs's Surface Model

IV. Phase Rule

V. Influence of Temperature on Surface Tension

VI. Properties of Monolayers

VII. Multilayer Model and Interfacial Orientation

VIII. Capillary Condensation

IX. Surface Tensions of Crystals

References

Chapter 3 / Thermodynamic Properties of Gases, Liquids, and Solids

I. Introduction

II. Chemical Species and Components

III. Pure Gases

IV. Gaseous Mixtures

V. Pure Liquids

VI. Liquid Mixtures

VII. Pure Solids

VIII. Solid Mixtures

Nomenclature

References

Chapter 4 / Gas-Liquid and Gas-Solid Equilibria at High Pressure, Critical Curves, and Miscibility Gaps

I. Introduction

II. General Description

III. Detailed Description—Weak Interaction in the Gas Phase

IV. Detailed Description—Strong Interaction in the Gas Phase

V. Liquid-Gas Critical Phenomena in Binary Systems

References

Chapter 5 / Thermodynamics of Matter in Gravitational, Electric, and Magnetic Fields

I. Thermodynamics of Matter in Gravitational Fields and in Rotational Frames of Reference

II. Static Electric and Magnetic Fields

III. The Thermodynamic Potentials of Dielectric and Magnetic Substances

IV. Applications

V. The Magnetic Properties of Matter

References

Chapter 6 / The Third Law of Thermodynamics

I. Introduction

II. The Third Law and Low-Temperature Physics

III. Liquid Helium

IV. The Third Law and the Determination of Entropy

V. Statistical Mechanics and the Third Law

VI. Chemical Equilibrium

VII. Internal Equilibrium in Solids

VIII. Nuclei and Entropy

IX. The Third Law and the Entropy of Gases

X. Thermal Motion on Solids

XI. The Third Law and Very Low Temperatures

References

Chapter 7 / Practical Treatment of Coupled Gas Equilibrium

I. Introduction

II. Direct Minimization of the Free Energy

III. The Equilibrium-Constant Method

IV. Transformations among Sets of Reference Species

V. Some Problems in the Calculation of Ideal-Gas Functions for the Individual Species

VI. The Thermodynamic Properties of the Mixture

VII. Numerical Methods

Appendix A. Illustrations of the Matrices Associated with the Stoichiometry of Reacting Gaseous Mixtures

Appendix B. The Introduction of Real-Gas Effects

References

Chapter 8 / Equilibria at Very High Temperatures

I. Introduction

II. The Ideal Plasma

III. Internal Partition Function and Internal Energy

IV. Transition Equilibria and Characteristic Temperature

V. Plasma at Higher Densities

References

Chapter 9 / High Pressure Phenomena

I. Introduction

II. Techniques

III. Observations

References

Chapter 10 / Caratheodory's Formulation of the Second Law

I . Introduction

II. Theory of Linear Differential Forms

III. Caratheodory's Principle

IV. Carnot's Theorem

V. Entropy Changes

VI. Law of Increasing Entropy

VII. Nonadiabatic Processes

VIII. Conclusion

Appendix A. Vector Formulation of the Theory of Differential Expressions

Appendix B. Solution Curve for Nonintegrable Pfaff Equation

Appendix C. Proof of Caratheodory's Theorem

Appendix D. Rigorous Proof of Carnot's Theorem

References

Author Index

Subject Index

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1st Edition - January 28, 1971

Editor: Wilhelm Jost

Language: EnglisheBook ISBN:

9 7 8 - 0 - 3 2 3 - 1 4 3 4 7 - 9

Physical Chemistry: An Advanced Treatise, Volume I: Thermodynamics deals with the applications of thermodynamics to mixtures, fluids, and solid systems at high pressures and… Read more

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Physical Chemistry: An Advanced Treatise, Volume I: Thermodynamics deals with the applications of thermodynamics to mixtures, fluids, and solid systems at high pressures and temperatures, critical phenomena, practical handling of coupled gas equilibriums, and matter in electric, magnetic, and gravitational fields. This book begins with a survey of basic laws, followed by discussions on questions of stability, irreversible processes, surfaces, the third law, and a short introduction to Caratheodory's axiomatic foundation. The zeroth law of thermodynamics, gaseous mixtures, internal equilibrium in solids, thermodynamic properties of the mixture, and theory of linear differential forms are also elaborated. This publication presents a comprehensive treatment of physical chemistry for advanced students and researchers.

List of Contributors

Foreword

Preface

Contents of Previous and Future Volume

Chapter 1 / Survey of Fundamental Laws

I. Introduction

II. Some Basic Concepts

III. Mass, Amount of Substance, and Composition

IV. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics (Empirical Temperature)

V. Equation of State

VI. Specific, Molar, and Partial Molar Quantities, and Generalized Densities

VII. Work

VIII. First Law of Thermodynamics (Energy and Heat)

IX. Enthalpy

X. Open Systems

XI. Second Law of Thermodynamics (Entropy and Thermodynamic Temperature)

XII. Caratheodory's Approach

XIII. Generalized Gibbs Equation (Chemical Potential)

XIV. Connection between Entropy and Heat

XV. Helmholtz Function and Gibbs Function

XVI. Fundamental Equations

XVII. Relation of Empirical to Thermodynamic Temperature

XVIII. Heat Capacity

XIX. Generalized Gibbs-Duhe Relation

XX. Chemical Reactions

XXI. Galvanic Cells

XXII. Equilibrium

XXIII. Nernst Heat Theorem

XXIV. Unattainability of Absolute Zero

Nomenclature

References

Chapter 2A / Equilibrium, Stability, and Displacements

Introduction

I. Thermodynamic Potentials

II. Affinity

III. Affinity and Thermodynamic Potentials

IV. The Gibbs Chemical Potential

V. The Phase Rule

VI. The Equilibrium Constant

VII. Standard Functions and Functions of Mixing

VIII. Numerical Examples

IX. Real Gases

X. Stability of Chemical Systems

XI. Equilibrium Displacements in Closed Systems

XII. Equilibrium Displacements in Open Systems

XIII. Thermodynamics of Solutions

XIV. Osmotic Pressure

XV. Equilibrum Curves between Two Phases

References

Chapter 2B / Irreversible Processes

I. Introduction

II. Conservation of Energy in Open Systems

III. Equality of Exchange Flow of Energy

IV. Entropy Production in Open Systems

V. Continuous Systems

VI. Transport and Chemical Equations

VII. Stationary States

VIII. Diffusion in Systems at Uniform Temperature

IX. Diffusion in Systems at Nonuniform Temperature

X. Electrokinetic Effects

XI. Entropy Production due to Viscosity

References

Chapter 2C / Thermodynamics of Surfaces

I. Mechanical Properties of an Interface

II. Pressure Tensor in Surface Layers

III. Gibbs's Surface Model

IV. Phase Rule

V. Influence of Temperature on Surface Tension

VI. Properties of Monolayers

VII. Multilayer Model and Interfacial Orientation

VIII. Capillary Condensation

IX. Surface Tensions of Crystals

References

Chapter 3 / Thermodynamic Properties of Gases, Liquids, and Solids

I. Introduction

II. Chemical Species and Components

III. Pure Gases

IV. Gaseous Mixtures

V. Pure Liquids

VI. Liquid Mixtures

VII. Pure Solids

VIII. Solid Mixtures

Nomenclature

References

Chapter 4 / Gas-Liquid and Gas-Solid Equilibria at High Pressure, Critical Curves, and Miscibility Gaps

I. Introduction

II. General Description

III. Detailed Description—Weak Interaction in the Gas Phase

IV. Detailed Description—Strong Interaction in the Gas Phase

V. Liquid-Gas Critical Phenomena in Binary Systems

References

Chapter 5 / Thermodynamics of Matter in Gravitational, Electric, and Magnetic Fields

I. Thermodynamics of Matter in Gravitational Fields and in Rotational Frames of Reference

II. Static Electric and Magnetic Fields

III. The Thermodynamic Potentials of Dielectric and Magnetic Substances

IV. Applications

V. The Magnetic Properties of Matter

References

Chapter 6 / The Third Law of Thermodynamics

I. Introduction

II. The Third Law and Low-Temperature Physics

III. Liquid Helium

IV. The Third Law and the Determination of Entropy

V. Statistical Mechanics and the Third Law

VI. Chemical Equilibrium

VII. Internal Equilibrium in Solids

VIII. Nuclei and Entropy

IX. The Third Law and the Entropy of Gases

X. Thermal Motion on Solids

XI. The Third Law and Very Low Temperatures

References

Chapter 7 / Practical Treatment of Coupled Gas Equilibrium

I. Introduction

II. Direct Minimization of the Free Energy

III. The Equilibrium-Constant Method

IV. Transformations among Sets of Reference Species

V. Some Problems in the Calculation of Ideal-Gas Functions for the Individual Species

VI. The Thermodynamic Properties of the Mixture

VII. Numerical Methods

Appendix A. Illustrations of the Matrices Associated with the Stoichiometry of Reacting Gaseous Mixtures

Appendix B. The Introduction of Real-Gas Effects

References

Chapter 8 / Equilibria at Very High Temperatures

I. Introduction

II. The Ideal Plasma

III. Internal Partition Function and Internal Energy

IV. Transition Equilibria and Characteristic Temperature

V. Plasma at Higher Densities

References

Chapter 9 / High Pressure Phenomena

I. Introduction

II. Techniques

III. Observations

References

Chapter 10 / Caratheodory's Formulation of the Second Law

I . Introduction

II. Theory of Linear Differential Forms

III. Caratheodory's Principle

IV. Carnot's Theorem

V. Entropy Changes

VI. Law of Increasing Entropy

VII. Nonadiabatic Processes

VIII. Conclusion

Appendix A. Vector Formulation of the Theory of Differential Expressions

Appendix B. Solution Curve for Nonintegrable Pfaff Equation

Appendix C. Proof of Caratheodory's Theorem

Appendix D. Rigorous Proof of Carnot's Theorem

References

Author Index

Subject Index

- No. of pages: 684
- Language: English
- Edition: 1
- Published: January 28, 1971
- Imprint: Academic Press
- eBook ISBN: 9780323143479

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