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Molecular Biology of RNA Tumor Viruses
1st Edition - January 1, 1980
Editor: John Stephenson
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Molecular Biology of RNA Tumor Viruses deals with the molecular biology and biologic significance of RNA tumor viruses. Methods and procedures with broad application to diverse… Read more
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Molecular Biology of RNA Tumor Viruses deals with the molecular biology and biologic significance of RNA tumor viruses. Methods and procedures with broad application to diverse areas of molecular biology, including cell culture procedures, competition radioimmunoassays, molecular hybridization, oligonucleotide mapping, heteroduplex mapping, and restriction endonuclease techniques, are considered. This book is organized into 12 chapters and begins with a historical overview of tumor virology beginning with the early studies of Peyton Rous and leading up to the significant surge of activity during the later decade. The biology of endogenous retroviruses, their transmission both within and between species, and cellular regulatory factors influencing their expression are subsequently discussed. This book then addresses the nature and origin of transforming RNA viruses and gives a detailed review of knowledge concerning the genomic structure of type C viruses. Translational products encoded by the type C viral genome are examined in ensuing chapters, emphasizing the viral reverse transcriptase. Other mammalian retroviruses, including the mouse mammary tumor virus and type D isolates of primates, are also described. The book concludes by evaluating the possibility of direct etiologic involvement of either endogenous or exogenous RNA tumor viruses in human cancers. This book will be of value both to graduate students and to established investigators with specific interest in other aspects of molecular biology.
List of ContributorsPrefaceChapter 1 Historical Background I. Introduction II. Avian Sarcoma Virus (ASV) III. Chicken Leukosis Viruses IV. Development of Inbred Strains of Mice V. Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV) VI. Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) VII. Murine Sarcoma Virus (MSV) VIII. In Vitro Studies of MuLV and MSV IX. Other Mammalian Sarcoma Viruses X. Discovery of Reverse Transcriptase XI. Properties of RNA Tumor Viruses XII. Endogenous Nature of Retroviruses XIII. MuLV in Wild Mice XIV. Derivation of Highly Oncogenic Viruses by Recombination and "Rescue" of Endogenous Host Cellular Genes XV. Evidence of RNA Tumor Viruses in Many Mammalian Species, Including Primates XVI. The Viral-Oncogene and Protovirus Hypotheses ReferencesChapter 2 Interspecies Transmission of Mammalian Retroviruses I. Introduction II. Transmission of Type C Virogenes between Distantly Related Species III. Primate Evolutionary Relationships IV. Phylogenetic Relationships of Mus Species V. Possible Normal Functions of Type C Viruses ReferencesChapter 3 The Endogenous Murine Type C Viruses I. Introduction II. Discovery of Murine Leukemia Viruses III. The Complex Polymorphism of Endogenous Type C Viruses IV. Endogenous Type C Virus Genes and Gene Products Found in Normal Mice V. Genetic Control of Endogenous Murine Type C Viruses VI. Other Host Regulatory Mechanisms for Endogenous Type C Viruses VII. Biological Functions of Endogenous Type C Viruses VIII. Conclusion ReferencesChapter 4 Germ Line Integration and Mendelian Transmission of Exogenous Type C Viruses I. Introduction II. Transmission of Exogenous Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) III. Expression and Somatic Amplification of Moloney-MuLV Sequences in BALB/Mo Mice IV. Characterization of the Chromosomal Integration Sites of Murine Leukemia Viruses V. Discussion and Conclusions ReferencesChapter 5 Type C RNA Transforming Viruses I. Introduction II. Typical Sarcoma Virus Recombinants; Nucleotide Sequences and Evolutionary Origins III. "Atypical" Sarcomagenic Virus Recombinants; Origins of Nucleotide Sequences IV. Expression of Nucleotide Sequences Associated with Sarcoma Viruses in Normal Cells V. Changes in Genetic Content of Sarcomagenic Viruses VI. Product of the src Gene of Avian Sarcoma Virus ReferencesChapter 6 Structural Analysis of Retrovirus Genomes I. Structure of Nondefective Sarcoma Virus Genomes II. Structure of Other Retrovirus Genomes III. Conclusions ReferencesChapter 7 Type C Virus Structural and Transformation-Specific Proteins I. Introduction II. gag-pol-Coded Virion Proteins III. env-Coded Proteins IV. Proteins Encoded by Type C Viruses with Transforming Activity ReferencesChapter 8 Primary Structure Analysis of Retrovirus Proteins I. Introduction II. Amino Acid Sequences of Mammalian Type C Virus gag Gene Products III. NH2-Terminal Sequences of Non-Type C Mammalian Retrovirus gag Gene Products IV. Amino Acid Sequences of Avian Type C Virus gag Gene Products V. env Gene Encoded Glycoproteins ReferencesChapter 9 Retrovirus Reverse Transcriptase I. Introduction II. Purification of Reverse Transcriptase III. Structural Properties of Reverse Transcriptase IV. Enzymatic Activities V. Polymerase Defective Mutants VI. Biosynthesis of pol Gene Products VII. DNA Synthesis in Vitro VIII. Utilization of Reverse Transcriptase to Prepare Complementary DNA from mRNA ReferencesChapter 10 Electron Microscopic Analysis of the Structure of RNA Tumor Virus Nucleic Acids I. Secondary Structure of Viral RNA II. Heteroduplex Studies ReferencesChapter 11 Type B and Type D Retroviruses I. Type B Retroviruses: Mouse Mammary Tumor Viruses (MMTVs) II. Type D Retroviruses: Mason-Pfizer Monkey Virus, Langur Virus, and Squirrel Monkey Retrovirus ReferencesChapter 12 Prospects for the Etiologic Involvement of RNA Tumor Viruses in Human Cancer I. Plausibility of an Etiologic Role for RNA Tumor Viruses in Human Cancer II. Methodologic Approaches to the Detection, Isolation, and Characterization of Candidate Human RNA Tumor Viruses III. Evidence of Candidate RNA Viruses Associated with Human Neoplasms IV. Outlook for the Future ReferencesSubject Index