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for Scientists and Engineers
1st Edition - November 4, 2009
Author: John Morrison
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9 7 8 - 0 - 1 2 - 3 8 5 9 1 1 - 2
Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of modern physics and to the various fields of contemporary physics. The book's… Read more
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Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of modern physics and to the various fields of contemporary physics. The book's main goal is to help prepare engineering students for the upper division courses on devices they will later take, and to provide physics majors and engineering students an up-to-date description of contemporary physics. The book begins with a review of the basic properties of particles and waves from the vantage point of classical physics, followed by an overview of the important ideas of new quantum theory. It describes experiments that help characterize the ways in which radiation interacts with matter. Later chapters deal with particular fields of modern physics. These include includes an account of the ideas and the technical developments that led to the ruby and helium-neon lasers, and a modern description of laser cooling and trapping of atoms. The treatment of condensed matter physics is followed by two chapters devoted to semiconductors that conclude with a phenomenological description of the semiconductor laser. Relativity and particle physics are then treated together, followed by a discussion of Feynman diagrams and particle physics.
Develops modern quantum mechanical ideas systematically and uses these ideas consistently throughout the book
Carefully considers fundamental subjects such as transition probabilities, crystal structure, reciprocal lattices, and Bloch theorem which are fundamental to any treatment of lasers and semiconductor devices
Uses applets which make it possible to consider real physical systems such as many-electron atoms and semi-conductor devices
PrefaceIntroductionChapter 1 The Wave-Particle Duality 1.1 The Particle Model of Light 1.1.1 The Photoelectric Effect 1.1.2 The Absorption and Emission of Light by Atoms 1.1.3 The Compton Effect 1.2 The Wave Model of Radiation and Matter 1.2.1 X-Ray Scattering 1.2.2 Electron Waves Suggestions for Further Reading Basic Equations Summary Questions ProblemsChapter 2 The Schrödinger Wave Equation 2.1 The Wave Equation 2.2 Probabilities and Average Values 2.3 The Finite Potential Well 2.4 The Simple Harmonic Oscillator 2.4.1 The Schrödinger Equation for the Oscillator 2.5 Time Evolution of the Wave Function Suggestion for Further Reading Basic Equations Summary Questions ProblemsChapter 3 Operators and Waves 3.1 Observables, Operators, and Eigenvalues 3.2 ∗Algebraic Solution of the Oscillator 3.3 Electron Scattering 3.3.1 Scattering from a Potential Step 3.3.2 Barrier Penetration and Tunneling 3.4 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 3.4.1 The Simultaneous Measurement of Two Variables 3.4.2 Wave Packets and the Uncertainty Principle 3.4.3 Average Value of the Momentum and the Energy Suggestion for Further Reading Basic Equations Summary Questions ProblemsChapter 4 Hydrogen Atom 4.1 The Gross Structure of Hydrogen 4.1.1 The Schrödinger Equation in Three Dimensions 4.1.2 The Energy Levels of Hydrogen 4.1.3 The Wave Functions of Hydrogen 4.1.4 Probabilities and Average Values in Three Dimensions 4.1.5 The Intrinsic Spin of the Electron 4.2 Radiative Transitions 4.2.1 The Einstein A and B Coefficients 4.2.2 Transition Probabilities 4.2.3 Selection Rules 4.3 The Fine Structure of Hydrogen 4.3.1 The Magnetic Moment of the Electron 4.3.2 The Stern-Gerlach Experiment 4.3.3 The Spin of the Electron 4.3.4 The Addition of Angular Momentum 4.3.5 Rule for Addition of Angular Momenta 4.3.6 ∗The Fine Structure 4.3.7 ∗The Zeeman Effect Suggestion for Further Reading Basic Equations Summary Questions ProblemsChapter 5 Many-Electron Atoms 5.1 The Independent-Particle Model 5.1.1 Antisymmetric Wave Functions and the Pauli Exclusion Principle 5.1.2 The Central-Field Approximation 5.2 Shell Structure and the Periodic Table 5.3 The LS Term Energies 5.4 Configurations of Two Electrons 5.4.1 Configurations of Equivalent Electrons 5.4.2 Configurations of Two Nonequivalent Electrons 5.5 The Hartree-Fock Method 5.5.1 A Hartree-Fock Applet 5.5.2 The Size of Atoms and the Strength of Their Interactions Suggestion for Further Reading Basic Equations Summary Questions ProblemsChapter 6 The Emergence of Masers and Lasers 6.1 Radiative Transitions 6.2 Laser Amplification 6.3 Laser Cooling 6.4 ∗Magneto-Optical Traps Suggestions for Further Reading Basic Equations Summary Questions ProblemsChapter 7 Statistical Physics 7.1 The Nature of Statistical Laws 7.2 An Ideal Gas 7.3 Applications of Maxwell-Boltzmann Statistics 7.3.1 Maxwell Distribution of the Speeds of Gas Particles 7.3.2 Black-Body Radiation 7.4 Entropy and the Laws of Thermodynamics 7.4.1 The Four Laws of Thermodynamics 7.5 A Perfect Quantum Gas 7.6 Bose-Einstein Condensation 7.7 Free-Electron Theory of Metals Suggestions for Further Reading Basic Equations Summary Questions ProblemsChapter 8 Electronic Structure of Solids 8.1 Introduction 8.2 The Bravais Lattice 8.3 Additional Crystal Structures 8.3.1 The Diamond Structure 8.3.2 The Hexagonal Close-Packed Structure 8.3.3 The Sodium Chloride Structure 8.4 The Reciprocal Lattice 8.5 Lattice Planes 8.6 Blochs Theorem 8.7 Diffraction of Electrons by an Ideal Crystal 8.8 The Band Gap 8.9 Classification of Solids 8.9.1 The Band Picture 8.9.2 The Bond Picture Suggestions for Further Reading Basic Equations Summary Questions ProblemsChapter 9 Charge Carriers in Semiconductors 9.1 Density of Charge Carriers in Semiconductors 9.2 Doped Crystals 9.3 A Few Simple Devices 9.3.1 The p-n Junction 9.3.2 Bipolar Transistors 9.3.3 Junction Field-Effect Transistors (JFET) 9.3.4 MOSFETs Suggestions for Further Reading Summary QuestionsChapter 10 Semiconductor Lasers 10.1 Motion of Electrons in a Crystal 10.2 Band Structure of Semiconductors 10.2.1 Conduction Bands 10.2.2 Valence Bands 10.2.3 Optical Transitions 10.3 Heterostructures 10.3.1 Properties of Heterostructures 10.3.2 Experimental Methods 10.3.3 Theoretical Methods 10.3.4 Band Engineering 10.4 Quantum Wells 10.4.1 The Finite Well 10.4.2 Two-Dimensional Systems 10.4.3 ∗Quantum Wells in Heterostructures 10.5 Quantum Barriers 10.5.1 Scattering from a Potential Step 10.5.2 T-Matrices 10.6 Reflection and Transmission of Light 10.6.1 Reflection and Transmission by an Interface 10.6.2 The Fabry-Perot Laser 10.7 Phenomenological Description of Diode Lasers 10.7.1 The Rate Equation 10.7.2 Well Below Threshold 10.7.3 The Laser Threshold 10.7.4 Above Threshold Suggestions for Further Reading Basic Equations Summary Questions ProblemsChapter 11 Relativity I 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Galilean Transformations 11.3 The Relative Nature of Simultaneity 11.4 Lorentz Transformation 11.4.1 The Transformation Equations 11.4.2 Lorentz Contraction 11.4.3 Time Dilation 11.4.4 The Invariant Space-Time Interval 11.4.5 Addition of Velocities 11.4.6 The Doppler Effect 11.5 Space-Time Diagrams 11.5.1 Particle Motion 11.5.2 Lorentz Transformations 11.5.3 The Light Cone 11.6 Four-Vectors Suggestions for Further Reading Basic Equations Summary Questions ProblemsChapter 12 Relativity II 12.1 Momentum and Energy 12.2 Conservation of Energy and Momentum 12.3 ∗The Dirac Theory of the Electron 12.3.1 Review of the Schrödinger Theory 12.3.2 The Klein-Gordon Equation 12.3.3 The Dirac Equation 12.3.4 Plane Wave Solutions of the Dirac Equation 12.4 ∗Field Quantization Suggestions for Further Reading Basic Equations Summary Questions ProblemsChapter 13 Particle Physics 13.1 Leptons and Quarks 13.2 Conservation Laws 13.2.1 Energy, Momentum, and Charge 13.2.2 Lepton Number 13.2.3 Baryon Number 13.2.4 Strangeness 13.2.5 Charm, Beauty, and Truth 13.3 Spatial Symmetries 13.3.1 Angular Momentum of Composite Systems 13.3.2 Parity 13.3.3 Charge Conjugation 13.4 Isospin and Color 13.4.1 Isospin 13.4.2 Color 13.5 Feynman Diagrams 13.5.1 Electromagnetic Interactions 13.5.2 Weak Interactions 13.5.3 Strong Interactions 13.6 ∗The Flavor and Color SU(3) Symmetries 13.6.1 The SU(3) Symmetry Group 13.6.2 The Representations of SU(3) 13.7 ∗Gauge Invariance and the Higgs Boson Suggestions for Further Reading Basic Equations Summary Questions ProblemsChapter 14 Nuclear Physics 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Properties of Nuclei 14.2.1 Nuclear Sizes 14.2.2 Binding Energies 14.2.3 The Semiempirical Mass Formula 14.3 Decay Processes 14.3.1 Alpha Decay 14.3.2 The β-Stability Valley 14.3.3 Gamma Decay 14.3.4 Natural Radioactivity 14.4 The Nuclear Shell Model 14.4.1 Nuclear Potential Wells 14.4.2 Nucleon States 14.4.3 Magic Numbers 14.4.4 The Spin-Orbit Interaction 14.5 Excited States of Nuclei Suggestions for Further Reading Basic Equations Summary Questions ProblemsAppendix A Natural Constants and Conversion FactorsAppendix B Atomic MassesAppendix C Solution of the Oscillator EquationAppendix D The Average Value of the MomentumAppendix E The Hartree-Fock AppletAppendix F Integrals That Arise in Statistical PhysicsAppendix G The Abinit AppletIndex
No. of pages: 488
Published: November 4, 2009
Imprint: Academic Press
eBook ISBN: 9780123751133
eBook ISBN: 9780123859112
John Morrison received a BS degree in Physics from University of Santa Clara in California. During his undergraduate years, he majored in English, Philosophy, and Physics and served as the editor of the campus literary magazine, the Owl. Enrolling at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, he received a PhD degree in theoretical Physics and moved on to postdoctoral research at Argonne National Laboratory where he was a member of the Heavy Atom Group. He then went to Sweden where he received a grant from the Swedish Research Council to build up a research group in theoretical atomic physics at Chalmers Technical University in Goteborg, Sweden. Working together with Ingvar Lindgren, he taught a graduate level-course in theoretical atomic physics for a number of years. Their teaching lead to the publication of the monograph, Atomic Many-Body Theory, which first appeared as Volume 13 of the Springer Series on Chemical Physics. The second edition of this book has become a Springer classic. Returning to the United States, John Morrison obtained a position in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at University of Louisville where he has taught courses in elementary physics, astronomy, modern physics, and quantum mechanics. In recent years, he has traveled extensively in Latin America and the Middle East maintaining contacts with scientists and mathematicians at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and the Technion University in Haifa. During the Fall semester of 2009, he taught a course on computational physics at Birzeit University near Ramallah on the West Bank, and he has recruited Palestinian students for the graduate program in physics at University of Louisville. He speaks English, Swedish, and Spanish, and he is currently studying Arabic and Hebrew.
Affiliations and expertise
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, KY, USA