Techniques in the Behavioral and Neural Sciences, Volume 7: Microdialysis in the Neurosciences focuses on the neurochemical methods employed in behavioral and neural sciences. The selection first elaborates on the introduction to intracerebral microdialysis, quantitative microdialysis, and microdialysis compared with other in vivo release models. Discussions focus on computational methods, post-mortem tissue analysis, perfusion methods, and features, development, and future applications of microdialysis. The text then takes a look at the practical aspects of using microdialysis for determination of brain interstitial concentrations and microdialysis and liquid chromatography. The publication examines the procedures for microdialysis with smallbore HPLC, use of microdialysis in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and brain dialysis of monoamines. Topics include significance of monoamine concentrations in dialysates; criteria for brain dialysis of monoamines; distribution of drugs to the interstitium of various tissues; methods to measure the extracellular concentration by microdialysis; and application to studies on drug abuse. The manuscript then elaborates on the feasibility of repeated microdialysis for within-subjects design experiments and microdialysis and automated on-line analysis approach to study central cholinergic transmission in vivo. The text is a dependable reference for readers interested in the use of microdialysis in neurosciences.