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Principles and Applications
1st Edition - May 25, 2005
Author: Godfrey Onwubolu
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Mechatronics is a core subject for engineers, combining elements of mechanical and electronic engineering into the development of computer-controlled mechanical devices such as… Read more
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Mechatronics is a core subject for engineers, combining elements of mechanical and electronic engineering into the development of computer-controlled mechanical devices such as DVD players or anti-lock braking systems. This book is the most comprehensive text available for both mechanical and electrical engineering students and will enable them to engage fully with all stages of mechatronic system design. It offers broader and more integrated coverage than other books in the field with practical examples, case studies and exercises throughout and an Instructor's Manual. A further key feature of the book is its integrated coverage of programming the PIC microcontroller, and the use of MATLAB and Simulink programming and modelling, along with code files for downloading from the accompanying website.
* Integrated coverage of PIC microcontroller programming, MATLAB and Simulink modelling* Fully developed student exercises, detailed practical examples* Accompanying website with Instructor's Manual, downloadable code and image bank
Undergraduate and postgraduate students in mechanical and electrical engineering and on dedicated mechatronics courses; Also engineering design and technology; IT and computing; aeronautical engineering; control, systems and robotics; manufacturing and product design.
PrefaceAcknowledgementsChapter 1: Introduction to Mechatronics1.1 Historical perspective1.2 Mechatronics system1.3 Mechatronics key elements1.3.1 Electronics1.3.2 Digital control1.3.3 Sensors and actuators1.3.4 Information technology1.4 Some examples of mechatronics systemsSummaryReferences Chapter 2: Electrical Components and Circuits2.1 Introduction2.1.1 External Energy Sources2.1.2 Ground2.2 Electrical Components2.2.1 Resistor2.2.2 Capacitor2.2.3 Inductor2.3 Resistive Elements2.3.1 Node Voltage Method126.96.36.199 Node Voltage Analysis Method2.3.2 Mesh Current Method 188.8.131.52 Mesh Current Analysis Method2.3.3 The Principle of Superposition2.3.4 Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits2.4 Sinusoidal Sources and Complex Impedance2.4.1 Resistive Impedance2.4.2 Capacitive Impedance 2.4.3 Inductive Impedance SummaryProblemsReferences Chapter 3: Semiconductor Electronic Devices3.1 Introduction3.2 Covalent Bonds and Doping Materials3.3 The PN Junction and the Diode Effect3.4 The Zener Diode3.5 Power Supplies3.6 Transistor Circuits3.6.1 Bipolar Junction Transistors 184.108.40.206 Transistor Operation220.127.116.11 Basis Circuit Configurations18.104.22.168 BJT Self-bias DC Circuit Analysis22.214.171.124 Practical BJT Self-bias DC Circuit Analysis126.96.36.199 Small Signal Models of the BJT3.6.2 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect (MOS) Transistors 188.8.131.52 Enhanced Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors 184.108.40.206 Depletion Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors3.6.3 Junction Field-Effect Transistors (JFETs)3.6.4 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Small Signal Models 3.6.5 Transistors Gates and Switching Circuits220.127.116.11 Diode Gates18.104.22.168 Bipolar Junction Transistors Gates22.214.171.124 Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL) Gates126.96.36.199 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Gates3.6.6 Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect (CMOS) Transistor GatesSummaryProblemsReferences Chapter 4: Digital Electronics4.1 Number Systems4.2 Combinational Logic Design using Truth Table4.3 Karnaugh Maps and Logic Design4.4 Combinational Logic Modules 4.4.1 Half Adders 4.4.2 Full Adders 4.4.3 Multiplexers 4.4.4 Decoders 4.4.5 Read and Write Memory4.5 Timing Diagrams4.6 Sequential Logic Modules 4.6.1 SR Flip-flops 4.6.2 SR Flip-flops 4.6.3 D Flip-flops 4.6.4 JK Flip-flop 4.6.5 Master/Slave or Pulse Trigger4.6.6 Edge Triggering4.7 Sequential Logic Design4.8 Applications of Flip-flops 4.8.1 Data Registers 4.8.2 Counters 4.8.3 Schmitt Trigger 4.8.4 NE555 Timer 4.8.5 Astable Multivibrator 4.8.6 Mono-stable Multivibrator (One-Shot) 4.8.7 Serial and Parallel InterfacesSummaryProblemsReferences Chapter 5: Analog Electronics5.1 Amplifiers5.2 The Ideal Operational Amplifier Model5.3 Inverting Amplifier5.4 Non-inverting Amplifier5.5 Unity-Gain Buffer5.6 Summer5.7 Difference Amplifier5.8 Instrumentation Amplifier5.9 Integrator Amplifier5.10 Differentiator Amplifier5.11 Comparator5.12 Sample and Hold Amplifier5.13 Active Filters 5.13.1 Low-pass Active Filters 5.13.2 High-pass Active Filters 5.13.3 Active Band-pass FiltersSummaryProblemsReferences Chapter 6: Microcomputers and Micro-controllers6.1 Microprocessors and Microcomputers6.2 Micro-controllers6.3 PIC16F84 Micro-controller Architecture 6.3.1 Features of PIC16F84/16F87 6.3.2 The PIC16F84 Architecture 6.3.3 Memory Organization of PIC16F84/16F87 6.3.4 Special Features of the PIC16F84/16F876.4 Programming a PIC using Assembly Language6.5 Programming a PIC using C Language 6.5.1 Initializing Ports 6.5.2 Programming PIC using CC5X 6.5.3 Practical problems for CC5X programming6.6 Interfacing Common PIC Peripherals: PIC Millennium Board 6.6.1 Numeric Keyboard 6.6.2 LCD Display6.7 PIC 16F877 microcontroller6.8 Interfacing to the PIC 6.8.1 Data Output from the PIC 6.8.2 Data Input to the PIC6.9 Communicating with PIC during programming 6.9.1 Compiling with CCS: PIC compiler 6.9.2 Boot loader for communicating with PIC 6.9.3 Tera Term for serial communicationSummaryProblemsReferences Chapter 7: Data Acquisition 7.1 Data Acquisition Systems7.2 Sampling and aliasing 7.2.1 Sampling 7.2.2 Aliasing7.3 Quantization7.4 Digital-to-Analog Conversion Hardware 7.4.1 Binary Weighted Ladder DAC 7.4.2 Resistor Ladder DAC7.5 Analog -to-Digital Conversion Hardware 7.5.1 Parallel-Encoding (Flash) ADC 7.5.2 Successive-Approximation ADC 7.5.3 Dual Slope ADC7.6 System Integration in Data Acquisition SystemsSummaryProblemsReferencesChapter 8: Sensors 8.1 Distance Sensors 8.1.1 Potentiometer 8.1.2 Linear Variable Differential Transformer 8.1.3 Digital Optical Encoder 188.8.131.52 Absolute Encoder 184.108.40.206 Incremental Encoder8.2 Movement Sensors 8.2.1 Velocity Sensors 220.127.116.11 Doppler Effect 8.2.2 Acceleration Sensors 18.104.22.168 Spring Mass Accelerometers 22.214.171.124 Piezoelectric Accelerometers 126.96.36.199 Piezoresistive Accelerometers 188.8.131.52 Variable Resistance Accelerometers8.3 Proximity Sensors 8.3.1 Inductive Proximity Sensors 8.3.2 Capacitive Proximity Sensors 8.3.3 Photoelectric Proximity Sensors 8.4 Stress and Strain Measurement 8.4.1 Resistance Strain Gauges 184.108.40.206 Wheatstone Bridge for Measuring Resistance Changes 8.4.2 Capacitance Strain Gauges 8.4.3 Photoelectric Strain Gauges 8.4.4 Semiconductor Strain Gauges8.5 Force Measurement Transducers 8.5.1 Optoelectric Force Sensors 8.5.2 Time of Flight Sensors 8.5.3 Binary Force Sensors8.6 Temperature Measurement Transducers 8.6.1 Liquid Expansion Thermometer 8.6.2 Bimetallic Strip Thermometer 8.6.3 Gas Thermometer 8.6.4 Resistance Temperature Detector 8.6.5 Thermocouple 8.6.6 Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuit Thermal Sensor 220.127.116.11 Diode Thermometer 18.104.22.168 Thermistors8.7 Pressure Transducer 8.6.1 Pressure Gradient Flow TransducersSummaryProblemsReferences Chapter 9: Electrical Actuator Systems9.1 Introduction9.2 Moving-iron Transducers9.3 Solenoids9.4 Relays9.5 Electric Motors 9.6 Direct-Current Motors 9.6.1 Fundamentals of DC motors 9.6.2 Separately excited motors 9.6.3 Shunt motors 9.6.4 Series motors 9.6.5 Control of DC motors 9.6.6 Speed control of shunt or separately excited motors 9.6.7 Controlling speed by adding resistance 9.6.8 Controlling speed by adjusting armature voltage 9.6.9 Controlling speed by adjusting field voltage 9.7 Dynamic model and control model of DC motors 9.7.1 Open-loop control of permanent magnet motors 9.7.2 Closed-loop control of permanent magnet motors 9.7.3 Motor speed control using PWM9.8 Servo Motors9.9 Stepper Motors 9.9.1 How stepper motor works 9.9.2 Stepper motor control 9.9.3 Hardware for stepper motor control 22.214.171.124 The power circuit 126.96.36.199 The L297 oscillator 188.8.131.52 The NE555 oscillator 184.108.40.206 Power supply9.10 Motor selection Chapter 10: Mechanical Actuator Systems10.1 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 10.1 Symbols for Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems 10.2 Hydraulic Pumps 10.2.1 Gear Pumps 10.2.2 Vane Pumps 10.3 Pneumatic Compressors 10.3.1 Centrifugal Compressors 10.3.2 Axial Compressors 10.4 Valves 10.4.1 Relief Valves 10.4.2 Loading Valves 10.4.3 Differential Pressure Regulating Valves 10.4.4 Three-way Valves 10.4.5 Four-way Valves10.2 Mechanical elements 10.2.1 Mechanisms 10.2.2 Machines 10.2.3 Types of motion10.3 Kinematic Chains 10.3.1 The four-bar chain 10.3.2 The slider-crank mechanism10.4 Cams 10.4.1 Classification of cam mechanisms 10.4.1.1 Modes of input/output motion 10.4.1.2 Follower configuration 10.4.1.3 Follower arrangement 10.4.1.4 Cam shape 10.4.2 Motion events 10.4.2.1 Constant velocity motion 10.4.2.2 Constant acceleration motion 10.4.2.3 Harmonic motion10.5 Gears 10.5.1 Spur and helical gears 10.5.2 Bevel gears 10.5.3 Rack and pinion 10.5.4 Gear trains 10.5.5 Epicyclic gear trains 10.6 Ratchet Mechanisms10.7 Flexible mechanical elements 10.7.1 Belt drives10.8 Friction clutches 10.8.1 Dog clutch 10.8.2 Cone clutch 10.8.3 Plate clutch 10.8.4 Band clutch 10.8.5 Internal expanding clutch 10.8.6 Centrifugal clutch 10.8.7 Clutch selection 10.9 Design of clutches 10.9.1 Constant pressure 10.9.2 Constant wear10.10 Brakes 10.10.1 Band brake 10.10.2 Drum brake 10.10.3 Disk brake 10.10.4 Brake selectionSummaryProblemsReferences Chapter 11: Interfacing Micro-controller with Actuators11.1 Introduction11.2 Interfacing with general-purpose 3-state transistors11.3 Interfacing Relays11.4 Interfacing Selenoids11.5 Interfacing Stepper Motors11.6 Interfacing Permanent Magnet Motors11.7 Interfacing Sensors11.8 Interfacing ADC11.9 Interfacing DAC 11.10 Interfacing Power Supplies11.11 Interfacing with RS 232, 48511.12 Compatibility at interface SummaryProblemsReferences Chapter 12: Control Theory: Modeling12.1 Introduction to control systems12.2 Modeling in the frequency domain 12.2.1 Block diagram representation 12.2.2 Laplace Transforms 12.2.3 The transfer function 12.2.4 Electrical network transfer functions 220.127.116.11 Passive networks 18.104.22.168 Operational amplifiers 12.2.5 Mechanical systems transfer functions 22.214.171.124 Translational mechanical systems transfer functions 126.96.36.199 Rotational mechanical systems transfer functions 12.2.6 Electromechanical systems transfer functions 12.2.7 Electromechanical analogies12.3 Modeling in the time domain state equations12.4 Block diagrams 12.4.1 Cascade form 12.4.2 Parallel form 12.4.3 Feedback formChapter 13: Control Theory: Analysis13.1 Introduction13.2 System response 13.2.1 Poles and zeros of a transient function13.3 Dynamic Characteristics of Control Systems13.4 Zero order system13.5 First order system13.6 Second order systems13.7 General second order transfer function 13.7.1 under-damped second order systems 13.7.2 Operator D-Method13.8 Systems Modeling and Interdisciplinary Analogies 13.9 Stability 13.10 Routh-Hurwitz stability criteria 13.11 Steady-state errors 13.11.1 Steady-state error for unity feed-back system 13.11.2 Static error constants and system type 13.11.3 Steady-state error through static error constants 13.11.4 Steady-state error specifications 13.11.5 Steady-state error for non-unity feed-back systemSummaryProblemsReferences Chapter 14: Control Theory: graphical techniques14.1 Root locus techniques 14.1.1 Vector representations of complex numbers 14.1.2 Properties of root locus 14.1.3 Root locus plots.14.2 Frequency response techniques 14.2.1 Nyquist plots 14.2.2 Bode plotsSummaryProblemsReferences Chapter 15: Robotics Systems15.1 Introduction15.2 Types of robots 15.2.1 Autonomous/Mobile Robots 15.2.2 Robotic Arms15.3 Basic Definitions in robotic arms15.4 Robotic Arm Configuration15.5 Robot Applications15.6 Basic Robotic Systems 15.6.1 Robotic mechanical-arm 15.6.2 End of arm tooling (EOAT)15.7 Robotic manipulator kinematics 15.7.1 Forward Transformation for 3-axis Planar 3R Articulated Robot 15.7.2 Inverse Transformation for 3-axis Planar 3R Articulated Robot15.8 Robotic arm positioning concepts15.9 Robotic arm path planning 15.10 Simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK SummaryProblemsReferences Chapter 16: Electronic Fabrication Process16.1 Production of Electronic Grade Silicon16.1.1 Single-Crystal Growing16.1.2 Shaping of Silicon into Wafers16.1.3 Film Deposition16.1.4 Oxidation16.1.5 Lithography16.1.6 Photo-masking, Etching, & Ion Implantation in Silicon Gate Process16.2 Fabrication Processes188.8.131.52 IC Packaging184.108.40.206 Number of External Terminals16.2.2 Materials used in IC Packages16.2.3 Configurations in IC Packaging16.3 PCB Manufacturing16.4 PCB Assembly16.5 Surface Mount TechnologySummaryReferences Chapter 17: Reliability17.1 Introduction17.2 Principles of Reliability17.3 Reliability of Systems 17.3.1 Reliability of Series Systems 17.3.2 Reliability of Parallel Systems 17.3.3 Reliability of Generic Series-Parallel Systems 17.3.4 Reliability of Major Parallel Systems 17.3.5 Reliability of Standby Systems17.4 Common Mode Failure17.5 Availability of Systems with Repair17.6 Response surface modeling 17.6.1 Planning the experimental investigationSummaryProblemsReferences Chapter 18: Artificial Intelligence in Mechatronics Systems18.1 Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) 18.1.1 Explosion control 18.1.2 PSO operators 220.127.116.11 Position minus position 18.104.22.168 Coefficient times velocity 22.214.171.124 Velocity minus velocity 126.96.36.199 Position minus velocity 18.1.3 PSO neighborhood 188.8.131.52 Social neighborhood 184.108.40.206 Physical neighborhood 220.127.116.11 Queens 18.1.4 PSO improvement strategies 18.104.22.168 No-hope tests 22.214.171.124 Re-hope process 126.96.36.199.1 Lazy descent method (LDM) 188.8.131.52.2 Energetic descent method (EDM) 184.108.40.206.3 Local iterative leveling (LI)L 220.127.116.11.4 Adaptive re-hope method (ARM) 18.104.22.168.5 Parallel and sequential versions18.2 TRIBES 18.2.1 Particles 18.2.2 Initial population of particles 18.2.3 Informers 18.2.4 Tribes 18.2.5 Promising search areas using hyper-spheres 18.2.6 Adaptations 22.214.171.124 Good particle and bad particle 126.96.36.199 Best particle and worst particle 188.8.131.52 Classification of good tribe and bad tribe 184.108.40.206 Rules for adding a tribe 220.127.116.11 Rules for removing a tribe 18.104.22.168 Adaptation scheme 22.214.171.124 Position update 126.96.36.199 Stopping criteria 188.8.131.52 Tribes algorithm 184.108.40.206 Parameter settingSummaryProblemsReferences Chapter 19: Mechatronics applications of some new optimization techniques19.1 Example 1: Gear train design19.2 Example 2: Pressure vessel design19.3 Example 3: Coil compression spring design19.4 Example 4: Assembly sequencing and magazine assignment for robotics assembly 19.4.1 Problem formulation 19.4.2 PSO for robotic assembly using DPP model 19.4.3 Experimental results19.5 Example 5: Automated guided vehicle (AGV) unit load 19.5.1 Unit load sizes model description 220.127.116.11 Model description 18.104.22.168 Model assumption 22.214.171.124 Model for unit load sizes 126.96.36.199 A model for estimating capacity and number of AGvs 19.5.2 Results 19.6 Example 6: DC motor design 19.6.1 Classification and standardization 19.6.2 Volume and bore sizing 19.6.3 Armature design 19.6.4 Field pole design 19.6.5 Optimization design of DC motorSummaryProblemsReferences Chapter 20: Mechatronics Systems & Case Shows20.1 Case Show 1: A PC-based CNC drilling machine• Design of the CNC drilling machine• Prediction and reduction of process times for the PC-based CNC drilling machine• Response surface methodology-based approach to CNC drilling operations20.2 Case Show 2: Mobile robots• A Robotic gaming machine• Multiple Robotic Gaming Machines• An Autonomous • An Automated Guided Vehicle20.3 Case Show 3: Robotic arm20.4 Suggestions for additional Case ShowsSummaryProblemsReferences AppendicesAppendix A: The Engineering Design ProcessAppendix B: Springs B1 Stresses in helical springs B2 Deflection and Stiffness in Helical Springs B3 Materials for Helical Springs B4 Design Methodology for Helical SpringsAppendix C Spur Gears C1 Design Considerations C2 Lewis Method for Bending Stress C3 Modified Lewis Equation C3 Design GuidesAppendix D Selection of Rolling Contact Bearings D1 Types of Ball Bearings D2 Types of Roller Bearings D3 Life of a Bearing D3.1 Rating Life of Bearing D3.2 Reliability of Bearing D4 Static Load Capacity D5 Dynamic Load Capacity D6 Equivalent Dynamic Load Appendix E Design for Fatigue Strength E1 Endurance Limit E2 Fatigue Strength Appendix F Shaft Design F1 Design Based on Static Load F2 Design Based on Fluctuating Load F3 Soderberg Criterion for Failure F4 Design based on Maximum Shear Stress Theory of Failure & Soderberg Criterion for Failure F5 Design based on Distortion Energy Theory of Failure & Soderberg Criterion Appendix G Power Screws Design G1 Mechanics of Power Screws G2 Raising load G3 Lowering load G4 Collar effectAppendix H Flexible Mechanical Elements Design H1 Analysis of flat belts H2 Length of open flat belt H3 Length of crossed flat belt H4 TensionsAppendix I CircuitMaker TutorialAppendix J MATLAB TutorialAppendix K Mechatronics resourcesSummaryProblemsReferences
No. of pages: 672
Published: May 25, 2005
Paperback ISBN: 9780750663793
eBook ISBN: 9780080492902
Godfrey Onwubolu holds a BEng degree (University of Benin), a MSc degree in mechanical engineering (Aston University) and a PhD in computer-aided design (Aston University). His industrial experience is in manufacturing engineering in West Midlands, England. He was a consultant to a centre of innovation for enabling small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing sector.
Godfrey works mainly in three areas: computer-aided design (CAD), additive manufacturing, and inductive modelling. He has published two textbooks on CAD: One is heavily used in many North American universities and colleges, and the other is listed by London’s Imperial College Press as one of the top-10 bestsellers. Godfrey currently works in the area of additive manufacturing, popularly known as 3D printing, where he continues to investigate the functionality of additive manufactured parts based on machine input parameters, in order to make users understand the characteristics of additive manufacturing technologies.He is internationally recognized for his work in inductive modelling, especially in Europe, where he gives public lectures and examines doctoral theses on the subject in universities. He is currently the lead researcher at Sheridan College in applying this technology to the joint Sheridan-Nexflow project for studying the behaviours of Nexflow air products based on their operational parameters.
Godfrey has authored more than 130 papers in international journals/conference proceedings and at least eight textbooks. For several years, he has been serving on the International Program Committee for the Inductive Modeling Conference in Europe. He is currently on the Editorial Boards of International Journal of Manufacturing Engineering and Production Planning & Control. He continues to use his expertise in the domains of computer-aided design, additive manufacturing, and inductive modelling to impart knowledge to students as an engineering and technology educator, and to advance productivity in the manufacturing industry sector in Canada and beyond.
Affiliations and expertise
Professor of Biomedical and Rehabilitation Engineering and Additive Manufacturing, Sheridan Institute of Technology, Brampton, Canada