Human Lymphokines: The Biological Immune Response Modifiers is a collection of papers presented at the Third International Symposium on Human Lymphokines held on October 15-17, 1981 at the Wadley Institutes of Molecular Medicine in Dallas, Texas. Contributors explore the role of human lymphokines in immune responses and their applications in immunotherapy. The focus is on lymphokines that have either entered clinical trials or are nearing clinical evaluation. Some of the activities of possible immediate significance, such as Glia cell stimulating factor and polyclonal B-cell activator, are also described. This volume is organized into six sections encompassing 56 chapters and begins with an overview of assay systems, touching on topics such as the activation of macrophages by interferon to produce plasminogen and macrophage activation by lymphokine factors. The next sections turn to the production, purification, and biological and chemical characterization of lymphokines. The discussion then shifts to the mechanisms of action of lymphokines in vitro and the use of animal models in lymphokine investigations, including lymphokine fractions in a mouse tumor model and enhancement of natural killing activity by different types of interferon. A great deal of emphasis is placed on macrophage migration inhibitory factor, lymphotoxins, gamma interferon, and interleukins. The book concludes with chapters devoted to the immunoregulatory effects of lymphokines and clinical studies.