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High Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion of Metals
1st Edition - August 6, 2008
Author: David John Young
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This book is concerned with providing a fundamental basis for understanding the alloy-gas oxidation and corrosion reactions observed in practice and in the laboratory. Starting… Read more
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This book is concerned with providing a fundamental basis for understanding the alloy-gas oxidation and corrosion reactions observed in practice and in the laboratory. Starting with a review of the enabling thermodynamic and kinetic theory, it analyzes reacting systems of increasing complexity. It considers in turn corrosion of a pure metal by a single oxidant and by multi-oxidant gases, followed by corrosion of alloys producing a single oxide then multiple reaction products. The concept of “diffusion paths” is used in describing the distribution of products in reacting systems, and diffusion data is used to predict reaction rates whenever possible.
Provides a logical and expert treatment of the subject for use as a guide for advanced-level academics, researchers and practitioners
Text is well supported by numerous micrographs, phase diagrams and tabulations of relevant thermodynamic and kinetic data
Combines physical chemistry and materials science methodologies
Upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, professionals, researchers and consultants in the field of high temperature corrosion resistance
Preface Abbreviations and Acronyms Glossary of Symbols
1. THE NATURE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION 1.1 Metal Loss due to the Scaling of Steel 1.2 Heating Elements 1.3 Protecting Turbine Engine Components 1.4 Hydrocarbon Cracking Furnaces 1.5 Prediction and Measurement Oxidation Rates 1.6 Rate Equations Linear Kinetics Diffusion Controlled Processes and Parabolic Kinetics Diffusion and Phase Boundary Processes Combined Volatilisation Thin Oxide Film Growth 1.7 Reaction Morphology: Specimen Examination 1.8 Summary References
2. ENABLING THEORY 2.1 Chemical Thermodynamics Chemical Potential and Composition Chemical Equilibrium in Gas Mixtures 2.2 Chemical Equilibria between Solids and Gases Chemical Equilibria Involving Multiple Solids Gases Containing Two Reactants 2.3 Alloys and Solid Solutions Dissolution of Gases in Metals 2.4 Chemical Equilibria Between Alloys and Gases Equilibria between Alloys and a Single Oxide Equilibria between Alloys and Multiple Oxides 2.5 Thermodynamics of Diffusion Driving Forces Point Defects 2.6 Absolute Rate Theory Applied to Lattice Particle Diffusion 2.7 Diffusion in Alloys Origins of Cross Effects Kirkendall Effect Diffusion Data for Alloys 2.8 Diffusion Couples and the Measurement of Diffusion Coefficients 2.9 Interfacial Processes and Gas Phase Mass Transfer Gas Adsorption Gas Phase Mass Transfer at Low Pressure Mass Transfer in Dilute Gases 2.10 Mechanical Effects: Stresses in Oxide Scales Stresses Developed during Oxidation Stresses Developed during Temperature Change 2.11 Further Reading References
3. OXIDATION OF PURE METALS 3.1 Experimental Findings 3.2 Use of Phase Diagrams 3.3 Point Defects and Nonstoichiometry in Ionic Oxides 3.4 Lattice Species and Structural Units in Ionic Oxides 3.5 Gibbs-Duhem Equation for Defective Solid Oxides 3.6 Lattice Diffusion and Oxide Scaling – Wagner’s Model 3.7 Validation of Wagner’s Model Oxidation of Nickel Oxidation of Cobalt Oxidation of Iron Sulphidation of Iron Effects of Oxidant Partial Pressure on the Parabolic Rate Constant Effect of Temperature on the Parabolic Rate Constant Other Systems Utility of Wagner’s Theory 3.8 Impurity Effects on Lattice Diffusion 3.9 Microstructural Effects Grain Boundary Diffusion Multi-Layer Scale Growth Development of Macroscopic Defects and Scale Detachment 3.10 Reactions not Controlled by Solid-State Diffusion Oxidation of Iron at low to form Wüstite Only Oxidation of Silicon References
4. MIXED GAS CORROSION OF PURE METALS 4.1 Selected Experimental Findings 4.2 Phase Diagrams and Diffusion Paths Scaling of Chromium in Oxidising-Nitriding and Oxidising-Carburising Gases Scaling of Chromium in Oxidising-Sulphidising-Carburising Gases Scaling of Iron in Oxidising-Sulphidising Gases Scaling of Nickel in Oxidising-Sulphidising Gases 4.3 Scale-Gas Interactions Identity of Reactant Species Rate Determining Processes in SO2 Reactions Production of Metastable Sulphide Independent Oxide and Sulphide Growth in SO2 4.4 Transport Processes in Mixed Scales Effect of Pre-oxidation on Reaction with Sulphidising-Oxidising Gases Solid-State Diffusion of Sulphur Gas Diffusion Through Scales Scale Penetration by Multiple Gas Species Metal Transport Processes 4.5 Predicting the Outcome of Mixed Gas Reactions References
5. ALLOY OXIDATION I: SINGLE-PHASE SCALES 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Selected Experimental Results 5.3 Phase Diagrams and Diffusion Paths 5.4 Selective Oxidation of One Alloy Component 5.5 Selective Oxidation of One Alloy Component under Non Steady-State Conditions 5.6 Solid Solution Oxide Scales Modelling Diffusion in Solid Solution Scales 5.7 Transient Oxidation Transient Behaviour Associated with Alumina Phase Transformations 5.8 Microstructural Changes in Subsurface Alloy Regions Subsurface Void Formation Scale-Alloy Interface Stability Phase Dissolution New Phase Formation Other Transformations 5.9 Breakdown of Steady-State Scale 5.10 Other Factors Affecting Scale Growth References
6. ALLOY OXIDATION II: INTERNAL OXIDATION 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Selected Experimental Results 6.3 Internal Oxidation Kinetics in the Absence of External Scaling 6.4 Experimental Verification of Diffusion Model 6.5 Surface Diffusion Effects in the Precipitation Zone 6.6 Internal Precipitates of Low Stability 6.7 Precipitate Nucleation and Growth 6.8 Cellular Precipitation Morphologies 6.9 Multiple Internal Precipitates 6.10 Solute Interactions in the Precipitation Zone 6.11 Transition from Internal to External Oxidation 6.12 Internal Oxidation Beneath a Corroding Alloy Surface 6.13 Volume Expansion in the Internal Precipitation Zone References
7. ALLOY OXIDATION III: MULTI-PHASE SCALES 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Binary Alumina Formers The Ni-Al System The Fe-Al System 7.3 Binary Chromia Formers The Ni-Cr and Fe-Cr Systems Transport Processes in Chromia Scales 7.4 Ternary Alloy Oxidation Fe-Ni-Cr Alloys Ni-Pt-Al Alloys Ni-Cr-Al Alloys Fe-Cr-Al Alloys Third Element Effect 7.5 Scale Spallation The Sulphur Effect Interfacial Voids and Scale Detachment Reactive Element Effects 7.6 Effects of Minor Alloying Additions Silicon Effects Manganese Effects Titanium Effects Other Effects 7.7 Effects of Secondary Oxidants References
8. CORROSION BY SULPHUR 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Sulphidation of Pure Metals Sulphidation Kinetics and Rates Growth of NiAs-type Sulphide Scales Sulphidation of Manganese Sulphidation of Refractory Metals Sulphides 8.3 Alloying for Sulphidation Protection Alloying with Chromium Alloying with Aluminium M-Cr-Al Alloys Alloying with Manganese Alloying with Molybdenum Refractory Metal Alloys 8.4 Sulphidation in H2/H2S 8.5 Effects of Temperature and Sulphur Partial Pressure 8.6 The Role of Oxygen 8.7 Internal Sulphidation 8.8 Hot Corrosion Phenomenology of Sulphate Induced Hot Corrosion Molten Salt Chemistry Fluxing Mechanisms Type I and Type II Hot Corrosion References
9. CORROSION BY CARBON 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Gaseous carbon activities 9.3 Carburisation 9.4 Internal Carburisation of Model Alloys Reaction Morphologies and Thermodynamics Carburisation Kinetics Carbide Microstructures and Distributions 9.5 Internal Carburisation of Heat Resisting Alloys Effect of Carbon Effect of Molybdenum Effect of Silicon Effect of Niobium and Reactive Elements Effect of Aluminium Alloying for Carburisation Protection 9.6 Metal Dusting of Iron and Ferritic Alloys Metal Dusting of Iron Iron Dusting in the Absence of Cementite Effects of Temperature and gas Composition on Iron Dusting Dusting of Low Alloy Steels Dusting of fFerritic Chromium Ssteels Dusting of FeAl and FeCrAl Alloys 9.7 Dusting of Nickel and Austenitic Alloys Metal Dusting of Nickel Dusting of Nickel Alloys in the Absence of Oxide Scales Effects of Temperature and Gas Composition on Nickel Dusting Dusting of Aaustenitic Alloys 9.8 Protection by Oxide Scaling Protection by Coatings Protection by Adsorbed Sulphur References
10. EFFECTS OF WATER VAPOUR ON OXIDATION 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Volatile Metal Hydroxide Formation Chromia Volatilisation Chromia Volatilisation in Steam Effects of Chromia Volatilisation Silica Volatilisation Other Oxides 10.3 Scale-Gas Interfacial Processes 10.4 Scale Transport Properties Gas Transport Molecular Transport Molecular Transport in Chromia Scales Ionic Transport 10.5 Water Vapour Effects on Alumina Formation 10.6 Void Development in Growing Scales References
11. CYCLIC OXIDATION 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Alloy Depletion and Scale Rehealing 11.3 Spallation Models 11.4 Combination of Spalling and Depletion Models 11.5 Effects of Experimental Variables Temperature Cycle Parameters Continuous Thermogravimetric Analysis Compositions of Alloys and Environments References
12. ALLOY DESIGN 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Alloy Design for Resistance to Oxygen 12.3 Design Against Oxide Scale Spallation 12.4 Design for Resistance to Other Corrodents and Mixed Gases 12.5 Future Research Electric Power Generation Petrochemical and Chemical Process Industries Greenhouse Gas Emission Control 12.6 Fundamental Research Grain Boundaries in Oxide Scales Water Vapour Effects Nucleation and Growth Phenomena 12.7 Conclusion References
Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Index
No. of pages: 592
Published: August 6, 2008
Imprint: Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN: 9780080559414
David John Young
David Young was educated at the University of Melbourne then worked in Canada for 9 years (University of Toronto, McMaster University, National Research Council of Canada) on high temperature metal-gas reactions. Returning to Australia, he worked for BHP Steel Research then joined the University of New South Wales. There he led the School of Materials Science & Engineering for 15 years, and has carried out extensive work on high temperature corrosion in mixed gas atmospheres.
His work has led to over 350 publications, including the books Diffusion in the Condensed State (with J.S. Kirkaldy), Institute of Metals (1988) and High Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion of Metals, 1st ed., Elsevier (2008). It has been recognized by his election to the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering, the U. R. Evans Award, Institute of Corrosion Science & Technology, UK, the High Temperature Materials Outstanding Achievement Award, Electrochemical Society, USA and election as Fellow, Electrochemical Society.
Affiliations and expertise
David John Young
School of Materials Science and Engineering
University of New South Wales
New South Wales, Australia