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2nd Edition - August 15, 2012
Author: George Wypych
The second edition of the Handbook of Plasticizers thoroughly reviews information currently available in open literature, such as published scientific papers, information from… Read more
Immediately download your ebook while waiting for your print delivery. No promo code is needed.
The second edition of the Handbook of Plasticizers thoroughly reviews information currently available in open literature, such as published scientific papers, information from plasticizer manufacturers, and patent literature.
Plasticizers are used in so many products that every library should have this reference source of information on plasticizers readily available for its readers. This book should be used in conjunction with Plasticizer Database, which gives information on the present status and properties of industrial and research plasticizers.
The book covers the uses, advantages, and disadvantages of plasticizers, historical and theoretical background, their effects on process conditions, and health, safety, and environmental issues.
1 Introduction1.1 Historical developments 1.2 Expectations from plasticizers 1.3 Definitions 1.4 Classification References
2 Plasticizer Types 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Characteristic properties of industrial plasticizers2.2.1 Abietates2.2.2 Adipates2.2.3 Alkyl sulfonates2.2.4 Azelates 2.2.5 Benzoates2.2.6 Chlorinated paraffins2.2.7 Citrates2.2.8 Energetic plasticizers2.2.9 Epoxides2.2.10 Glycol ethers and their esters 2.2.11 Glutarates 2.2.12 Hydrocarbon oils2.2.13 Isobutyrates 2.2.14 Oleates 2.2.15 Pentaerythritol derivatives2.2.16 Phosphates2.2.17 Phthalates 2.2.18 Polymeric plasticizers 184.108.40.206 Esters 220.127.116.11 Polybutenes 2.2.19 Ricinoleates 2.2.20 Sebacates 2.2.21 Sulfonamides 2.2.22 Superplasticizers and plasticizers for concrete2.2.23 Tri- and pyromellitates 2.2.24 Other plasticizers 18.104.22.168 Biphenyl derivatives22.214.171.124 Calcium stearate 126.96.36.199 Carbon dioxide188.8.131.52 Difuran diesters 184.108.40.206 Fluorine-containing plasticizers220.127.116.11 Hydroxybenzoic acid esters18.104.22.168 Isocyanate adducts22.214.171.124 Multi-ring aromatic compounds126.96.36.199 Natural product derivatives 188.8.131.52 Nitriles 184.108.40.206 Siloxane-based plasticizers220.127.116.11 Tar-based products 18.104.22.168 Thioeters 22.214.171.124 Blends 2.3 Methods of synthesis and their effect on properties of plasticizers2.4 Reactive plasticizers and internal plasticizationReferences
3 Methods of Quality Control of Plasticizers 3.1 Abbreviations, terminology, and vocabulary 3.2 Acid number 3.3 Aging studies 3.4 Ash 3.5 Brittleness temperature 3.6 Brookfield viscosity 3.7 Chemical resistance 3.8 Color 3.9 Compatibility 3.10 Compression set 3.11 Concrete additives 3.12 Electrical properties 3.13 Extractable matter 3.14 Flash and fire point 3.15 Fogging 3.16 Fusion 3.17 Gas chromatography 3.18 Hardness 3.19 Infrared analysis of plasticizers 3.20 Kinematic viscosity 3.21 Marking (classification) 3.22 Melt rheology 3.23 Migration 3.24 Poly(vinyl chloride) - standard specification 3.25 Powder-mix time 3.26 Purity 3.27 Refractive index 3.28 Residual contamination 3.29 Sampling 3.30 Saponification value 3.31 Saybolt viscosity 3.32 Sorption of plasticizer 3.33 Specific gravity 3.34 Specification 3.35 Staining 3.36 Stiffness 3.37 Tensile properties 3.38 Thermal expansion coefficient 3.39 Unsaponifiable contents 3.40 Viscosity of plastisols and organosols 3.41 Water concentration 3.42 Weight loss References
4 Transportation and Storage 4.1 Transportation 4.2 Storage References
5 Mechanisms of Plasticizers Action A. Marcilla and M. BeltránChemical Engineering Department, Alicante University, Spain5.1 Classical theories 5.1.1 The lubricity theory 5.1.2 The gel theory 5.1.3 Moorshead's empirical approach 5.2 The free volume theory 5.2.1 Mathematical models References
6 Theories of Compatibility Valery Yu. Senichev and Vasiliy V. TereshatovInstitute of Technical Chemistry of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia6.1 Compatibility concepts 6.1. 1 Thermodynamic treatment 6.1.2 Interaction parameter 6.1.3 Effect of chemical structure of plasticizers and matrix 6.2 Solubility parameter and the cohesive energy density 6.2.1 Solubility parameter concept 6.2.2 Experimental evaluation of solubility parameters of plasticizers 6.2.3 Methods of experimental evaluation and calculation of solubility parameters of polymers 6.2.3 The methods of calculation of solubility parameters 6.2.4 Multi-dimensional approaches 6.3 Methods of plasticizer selection based on principles of compatibility 6.3.1 How much plasticizer is necessary for a polymer composition? 6.3.2 Initial experimental estimation of compatibility 6.3.3 Thermodynamic compatibility 6.4 Practical approaches in using theory of compatibility for plasticizers selection 6.5 Experimental data illustrating effect of compatibility on plasticized systems 6.5.1 Influence of compatibility on the physical stability of the plasticized polymer 6.5.2 Influence of compatibility on viscosity of the plasticized composition 6.5.3 Influence of compatibility on mechanical properties and physical properties of plasticized polymer References
7 Plasticizer Motion and Diffusion 7.1 Plasticizer diffusion rate and the methods of study 7.2 Plasticizer motion and distribution in matrix 7.3 Plasticizer migration 7.4 Plasticizer distribution in materials in contact Vasiliy V Tereshatov and Valery Yu SenichevInstitute of Technical Chemistry of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia7.5 Antiplasticization 7.6 Effect of diffusion and mobility of plasticizers on their suitability References
8 Effect of Plasticizers on Other Components of Formulation 8.1 Plasticizer consumption by fillers 8.2 Solubility of additives in plasticizers 8.3 Additive molecular mobility and transport in the presence of plasticizers 8.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymerization and curing reactions References
9 Plasticization Steps A. Marcilla, J.C. García and M. BeltránChemical Engineering Department, Alicante University, Spain9.1 Plasticization steps 9.2 Studies of plastisol's behavior during gelation and fusion 9.2.1 Rheological characterization 9.2.2 Studies by scanning electron microscopy 9.2.3 Study of polymer-plasticizer interactions by DSC 9.2.4 Study of polymer-plasticizer interactions by SALS 9.2.5 Study of polymer-plasticizer interactions by FTIR 9.2.6 Study of polymer-plasticizer interactions by Tg References
10 Effect of Plasticizers on Properties of Plasticized Materials 10.1 Mechanical properties 10.1.1 Tensile strength 10.1.2 Elongation 10.1.3 Hardness 10.1.4 Toughness, stiffness, ductility, modulus 10.1.5 Other mechanical properties 10.2 Optical properties 10.3 Spectral properties 10.4 Rheological properties Juan Carlos Garcia and Antonio Francisco MarcillaChemical Engineering Department, Alicante University, Spain
10.4.1 Torque measurement in mixers 10.4.2 Capillary viscometers 10.4.3 Dynamic experiments 10.4.4 Rheology of PVC plastisols 10.4.4.1 Flow properties 10.4.4.2 Gelation and fusion 10.4.4.3 Recycling of PVC plastisols 10.5 Electrical properties 10.6 Influence of plasticizers on glass transition temperature of polymers Valery Yu Senichev and Vasiliy V TereshatovInstitute of Technical Chemistry of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia10.7 Flammability and smoke formation in the presence of plasticizers 10.8 Thermal degradation 10.8.1 Thermal degradation of plasticizer 10.8.2 Effect of polymer degradation products on plasticizers 10.8.3 Effect of plasticizer degradation products on polymer degradation 10.8.4 Loss of plasticizer from material due to the chemical decomposition reactions and evaporation 10.8.5 Effect of plasticizers on the thermal degradation of material 10.9 Effect of UV and ionized radiation on plasticized materials 10.10. Biodegradation in the presence of plasticizers 10.11 Crystallization, structure, and orientation of macromolecules with and without plasticizers 10.12 Plasticizer effect on contact with other materials 10.13 Influence of plasticizers on swelling of crosslinked elastomersVasiliy V. Tereshatov, Valery Yu. SenichevInstitute of Technical Chemistry, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia10.13.1 Change of elastic properties of elastomers on swelling in liquids of different polarity10.13.2 Influence of swelling on viscoelastic properties of crosslinked amorphous elastomers10.13.3 Influence of swelling on tensile strength and critical strain of elastic materials 10.14 Effect of plasticizers on other properties References
11 Plasticizers Use and Selection for Specific Polymers 11.1 ABS 11.1.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.1.2 Practical concentrations 11.1.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.1.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action 11.1.5 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives 11.1.6 Typical formulations 11.2 Acrylics 11.2.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.2.2 Practical concentrations 11.2.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.2.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action 11.2.5 Typical formulations 11.3 Bromobutyl rubber 11.3.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.3.2 Practical concentrations 11.3.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.3.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives 11.4 Butyl terpolymer 11.4.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.4.2 Practical concentrations 11.5 Cellulose acetate 11.5.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.5.2 Practical concentrations 11.5.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.5.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action 11.5.5 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives 11.6 Cellulose butyrates and propionates 11.6.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.6.2 Practical concentrations 11.6.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.6.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives 11.7 Cellulose nitrate 11.7.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.7.2 Practical concentrations 11.7.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.7.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives 11.7.5 Typical formulations 11.8 Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride 11.9 Chlorosulfonated polyethylene 11.10 Copolymers 11.10.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.10.2 Practical concentrations 11.10.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.10.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action 11.11 Cyanoacrylates 11.11.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.11.2 Practical concentrations 11.11.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.12 Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Copolymer, EPDM 11.12.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.12.2 Practical concentrations 11.12.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.12.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives 11.13 Epoxy resin 11.13.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.13.2 Practical concentrations 11.13.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.13.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives 11.14 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, EVA 11.15 Ionomers 11.15.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.15.2 Practical concentrations 11.15.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.15.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action 11.15.5 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives 11.16 Nitrile rubber 11.16.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.16.2 Practical concentrations 11.16.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.16.4 Typical formulations 11.17 Polyacrylonitrile 11.18 Polyamide 11.18.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.18.2 Practical concentrations 11.18.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.18.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives 11.19 Polyamine 11.20 Polyaniline 11.21 Polybutadiene 11.21.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.21.2 Practical concentrations 11.21.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.22 Polybutylene 11.22.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.22.2 Practical concentrations 11.22.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.23 Poly(butyl methacrylate) 11.23.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.23.2 Practical concentrations 11.23.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.24 Polycarbonate 11.24.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.24.2 Practical concentrations 11.24.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.25 Polyester 11.25.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.25.2 Practical concentrations 11.25.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.25.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives 11.25.5 Typical formulations 11.26 Polyetherimide 11.27 Polyethylacrylate 11.28 Polyethylene 11.28.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.28.2 Practical concentrations 11.28.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.28.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action 11.28.5 Typical formulations 11.29 Poly(ethylene oxide) 11.29.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.29.2 Practical concentrations 11.29.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.29.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives 11.30 Polyisobutylene 11.31 Polyisoprene 11.31.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.31.2 Practical concentrations 11.31.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.31.4 Typical formulations 11.32 Polyimide 11.32.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.32.2 Practical concentrations 11.32.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.32.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives 11.33 Polylactide 11.33.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.33.2 Practical concentrations 11.33.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.33.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives 11.34 Polymethylmethacrylate 11.34.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.34.2 Practical concentrations 11.34.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.34.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action 11.34.5 Typical formulations 11.35 Polypropylene 11.35.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.35.2 Practical concentrations 11.35.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.35.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives 11.36 Poly(n-vinylcarbazole) 11.37 Poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) 11.37.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.37.2 Practical concentrations 11.37.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.37.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action 11.37.5 Typical formulations 11.36 Polyphenylene ether 11.36.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.36.2 Practical concentrations 11.36.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.37 Polystyrene 11.37.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.37.2 Practical concentrations 11.37.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.38 Polysulfone 11.39 Polysulfide 11.39.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.39.2 Practical concentrations 11.39.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.40 Poly(phenylene sulfide) 11.41 Polyvinylacetate 11.41.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.41.2 Practical concentrations 11.41.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.41.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives 11.42 Polyvinylalcohol 11.42.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.42.2 Practical concentrations 11.42.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.42.4 Typical formulations 11.43 Polyvinylbutyral 11.43.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.43.2 Practical concentrations 11.43.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.43.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives 11.44 Polyvinylchloride 11.44.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.44.2 Practical concentrations 11.44.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.44.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action 11.44.5 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives 11.44.6 Typical formulations 11.45 Polyvinylidenefluoride 11.45.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.45.2 Practical concentrations 11.45.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.46 Polyvinylidenechloride 11.47 PolyurethanesVasiliy Tereshatov V., Valery Senichev Yu., Elsa Tereshatova N., Marina Makarova A.Institute of Technical Chemistry, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia11.47.1 The mechanism of the specific action of plasticizers on polyurethanes properties 11.47.2 Principles of a plasticizer selection 11.47.3 Plasticizers in use 11.48 Proteins 11.48.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.48.2 Practical concentrations 11.48.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.48.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives 11.48 Rubber, natural 11.48.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.48.2 Practical concentrations 11.48.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.48.4 Typical formulations 11.49 Silicone 11.49.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.49.2 Practical concentrations 11.49.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.49.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives 11.49.5 Typical formulations 11.50 Styrene-butadiene rubber 11.50.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.50.2 Practical concentrations 11.50.3 Typical formulations 11.51 Styrene-butadiene-styrene 11.51.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.51.2 Practical concentrations 11.51.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.52 Starch 11.52.1 Frequently used plasticizers 11.52.2 Practical concentrations 11.52.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers 11.52.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives 11.52.5 Typical formulations References
12 Plasticizers in Polymer Blends 12.1 Plasticizer partition between component polymers 12.2 Interaction of plasticizers with blend components 12.3 Effect of plasticizers on blend properties 12.4 Blending to reduce or to replace plasticizers References
13 Plasticizers in Various Industrial Products 13.1 Adhesives and sealants 13.1.1 Plasticizer types 13.1.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.1.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.1.4 advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.1.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties 13.1.6 Examples of formulations 13.2 Aerospace 13.3 Agriculture 13.4 Automotive applications 13.4.1 Plasticizer types 13.4.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.4.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.4.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.4.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties 13.5 Cementitious materials 13.5.1 Plasticizer types 13.5.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.5.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.5.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.5.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties 13.5.6 Examples of formulations 13.6 Coated fabrics 13.6.1 Plasticizer types 13.6.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.6.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.6.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.6.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties 13.6.6 Examples of formulations 13.7 Cosmetics 13.7.1 Plasticizer types 13.7.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.7.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.7.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.7.6 Examples of formulations 13.8 Dental materials 13.8.1 Plasticizer types 13.8.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.8.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.8.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.9 Electrical and electronics 13.9.1 Plasticizer types 13.9.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.9.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.9.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.10 Fibers 13.10.1 Plasticizer types 13.10.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.10.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.11 Film 13.11.1 Plasticizer types 13.11.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.11.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.11.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.12 Food 13.12.1 Plasticizer types 13.12.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.12.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.12.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.12.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties 13.13 Flooring 13.13.1 Plasticizer types 13.13.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.13.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.13.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.13.5 Examples of formulations 13.14 Foams 13.14.1 Plasticizer types 13.14.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.14.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.14.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.14.5 Examples of formulations 13.15 Footwear 13.15.1 Plasticizer types 13.15.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.15.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.15.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.16 Gaskets 13.16.1 Plasticizer types 13.16.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.16.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.16.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.16.5 Examples of formulations 13.17 Inks, varnishes, and lacquers 13.17.1 Plasticizer types 13.17.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.17.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.17.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.17.5 Examples of formulations 13.18 Medical applications 13.18.1 Plasticizer types 13.18.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.18.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.18.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.18.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties 13.18.6 Examples of formulations 13.19 Membranes 13.19.1 Plasticizer types 13.19.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.19.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.19.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.20 Paints and coatings 13.20.1 Plasticizer types 13.20.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.20.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.20.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.20.5 Examples of formulations 13.21 Pharmaceutical products 13.21.1 Plasticizer types 13.21.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.21.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.21.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.21.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties 13.21.6 Examples of formulations 13.22 Photographic materials 13.22.1 Plasticizer types 13.22.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.22.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.23 Pipes 13.23.1 Plasticizer types 13.23.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.23.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.23.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.23.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties 13.23.6 Examples of formulations 13.24 Roofing materials 13.24.1 Plasticizer types 13.24.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.24.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.24.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.24.5 Examples of formulations 13.25 Tires 13.25.1 Plasticizer types 13.25.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.25.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.25.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.25.5 Examples of formulations 13.26 Toys A. Marcilla and J.C. GarcíaChemical Engineering Department, Alicante University, Spain13.26.1 Migration of plasticizers 13.26.2 Substitutes to phthalates 13.27 Tubing 13.27.1 Plasticizer types 13.27.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.27.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.27.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.27.5 Examples of formulations 13.28 Wire and cable 13.28.1 Plasticizer types 13.28.2 Plasticizer concentration 13.28.3 Reasons for plasticizer use 13.28.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use 13.28.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties 13.28.6 Examples of formulations References
14 Plasticizers in various processing methods 14.1 Blow molding 14.2 Calendering 14.3 Coil coating 14.4 Compression molding 14.5 Compounding (mixing) 14.6 Dip coating14.7 Dry blending14.8 Extrusion14.9 Injection molding14.10 Polymer synthesis14.11 Powder molding14.12 Rotational moldingM. Beltran and A MarcillaChemical Engineering Department, Alicante University, Spain14.13 Rubber processing14.14 Thermoforming14.15 Vacuum molding14.16 Web coating14.17 Wire coatingReferences
15 Specialized Analytical Methods in Plasticizer Testing 15.1 Plasticizer identification 15.2 Methods of determination of plasticizer concentration 15.3 Determination of volatility, molecular motion, diffusion, and migration of plasticizers 15.4 Methods of study of plasticized materials References
16 Mathematical Modelling in Application to Plasticizers 16.1 PVC-plasticizer interaction model 16.2 Gas permeation 16.3 Migration 16.4 Dry-blending time 16.5 Gelation and fusion 16.6 Thermal decomposition References
17 Health and Safety Issues with Plasticizers and Plasticized Materials Søren Thor Larsen National Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Chemical Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark17.1 Adjuvant effect of plasticizers 17.1.1 Introduction 17.1.2 Airway allergy 17.1.3 The immune system 17.1.4 Immunotoxicology 17.1.5 Environmental adjuvants 17.1.6 Epidemiological studies 17.1.7 Animal studies 126.96.36.199 A mouse bioassay for the detection of adjuvant effect 188.8.131.52 Results 17.1.8 Human exposure and hazard evaluation 17.1.9 Other effects of plasticizers in relation to allergy and airway effects 17.1.10 Conclusions and practical applications Acknowledgments References 17.2 The rodent hepatocarcinogenic response to phthalate plasticizers: basic biology and human extrapolationRuth A. RobertsAventis Pharma Drug Safety Evaluation, Centre de Recherche de Paris, Vitry sur Seine, France17.2.1 Introduction17.2.2 Gene Expression and Cancer Toxicology184.108.40.206 Gene Expression220.127.116.11 Cancer biology: some basic considerations18.104.22.168 Chemical carcinogenesis17.2.3 Peroxisome proliferators and rodent nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogenesis22.214.171.124 The peroxisome proliferators126.96.36.199 PPARa17.2.4 Species differences in response to PPs17.2.5 SummaryReferences17.3 The influence of maternal nutrition on phthalate teratogenicity Janet Y. Uriu-Adams (1) and Carl L. Keen (2)Departments of Nutrition (1) and Internal Medicine (2), University of California at Davis, Davis, California, USA17.3.1 Introduction 17.3.2 Reproductive toxicity of BBP and DEHP17.3.3 Acute phase response-induced alterations in maternal and conceptus nutrient metabolism17.3.4 Concluding commentsReferences 17.4 Public health implications of phthalates: A review of findings from the U.S. National Toxicology Program's Expert Panel ReportsStephanie R. Miles-RichardsonLCDR United States Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, USA 17.4.1 Introduction 17.4.2 Exposure to adults in the general population17.4.3 Exposure of vulnerable sub-populations188.8.131.52 Children 184.108.40.206 Women 220.127.116.11 Occupational exposure18.104.22.168 Medical exposure17.4.4 Health effects of phthalate exposure17.4.5 Expert Panel conclusions17.4.6 Public health implications of Expert Panel conclusionsReferences17.5 Plasticizers in the indoor environmentWerner ButteCarl von Ossietzky University, Faculty of Chemistry, Oldenburg, Germany17.5.1 Introduction 17.5.2 Sources of indoor plasticizers17.5.3 Occurrence of plasticizers indoors22.214.171.124 Indoor air 126.96.36.199 House dust 17.5.4 Impact of plasticizers in the indoor environment 188.8.131.52 Indoor plasticizers and health 184.108.40.206 Human exposure assessment for plasticizers in the indoor environment 220.127.116.11 Reference and guideline values of plasticizers to assess indoor quality 17.5.5 Summary References Addendum List of Abbreviations
18 The Environmental Fate of Plasticizers William R. RoyIllinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois, USA18.1 Introduction 18.1.1 Releases to the environment 18.1.2 Levels in the environment 18.2 Plasticizers in water 18.2.1 Solubility 718.2.2 Volatilization from water 18.2.3 Abiotic degradation in water 18.2.4 Biodegradation in water 18.2.5 Adsorption from water 18.3 Soil and sediment 18.3.1 Volatilization 18.3.2 Biodegradation in soil 18.4. Organisms 18.5 Air Summary and Concluding Remarks References
19 Regulations and Data 19.1 Toxic substance control 19.2. Carcinogenic effect 19.3 Teratogenic and mutagenic effect 19.4 Workplace exposure limits 19.5 Exposure from consumer products 19.6 Plasticizers in drinking water 19.7 Food regulatory acts19.8 Medical and other applications References
20 Personal Protection 20.1 Clothing 20.2 Gloves 20.3 Eye protection 20.4 Respiratory protection References
21 Plasticizer Recovery & Recycling References