Colloquia Mathematica Societatis Jânos Bolyai, 37: Finite and Infinite Sets, Vol. I focuses on the principles, operations, and approaches involved in finite and infinite sets. The selection first elaborates on essential chains and squares, cellular automata in trees, almost disjoint families of countable sets, and application of Lovasz local lemma. Discussions focus on deleting operations, number of all and self-dual E-chains, transversality of E-chains and E-squares, and binary E-chains and E-squares. The text then elaborates on induced subgraphs, inverse extremal digraph problems, two Sperner-type conditions, and minimal decomposition of all graphs with equinumerous vertices and edges into mutually isomorphic subgraphs. Topics include general digraph extremal problem, matrix graphs and quadratic forms, augmentation of matrices, set of attained densities, proof of the continuity theorem, and inverse extremal multigraph problems. The text examines circular flows in graphs, two-colorings of simple arrangements, monochromatic paths in infinite colored graphs, and graphs associated with an integral domain and their applications. The selection is a dependable reference for researchers interested in finite and infinite sets.