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Electrodeposition of Alloys
Principles and Practice
1st Edition - January 1, 1963
Author: Abner Brenner
9 7 8 - 1 - 4 8 3 2 - 2 3 1 1 - 7
Electrodeposition of Alloys: Principles and Practice, Volume I covers the general and theoretical aspects of the electrodeposition of alloy containing silver and/or copper. This… Read more
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Electrodeposition of Alloys: Principles and Practice, Volume I covers the general and theoretical aspects of the electrodeposition of alloy containing silver and/or copper. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 21 chapters. The first part considers first the history of electrodeposition, the applications of electrodeposited alloys, and the practical considerations involved in electrodeposition. This part also deals with the effect of operating variables on composition of electrodeposited alloys, and the physico-chemical properties of the alloy. The second part focuses on the theoretical aspects of alloy electrodeposition. This part includes discussions on the role of cathode diffusion layer, the effects of complexing agents, and the concept of alloy plating. The third part discusses the practical aspects of the electrodeposition of alloys, focusing primarily on the electrodeposition of alloys from aqueous solutions. This part examines first brass and bronze plating, followed by the electrodeposition of copper-tin, silver, and iron containing alloys. This book is directed toward electrochemists and researchers.
Preface Acknowledgments Contents of Volume II Part I General and Practical 1. Survey of Alloy Plating 1.1 What Is an Ahoy? 1.2 Definition of Powdered Alloys 1.3 What Are Electrodeposited Alloys? 1.4 Scope of Alloy Deposition 1.5 Properties of Electrodeposited Alloys 1.6 Present and Potential Uses of Alloy Deposits 1.7 Potential Uses of the Alloy Plating Process References 2. History and Literature of the Electrodeposition of Alloys 2.1 Invention of, and Early Interest in, Electroforming 2.2 Birth of Modern Electroplating 2.3 Alloy Plating before 1900 2.4 Alloy Plating since 1900 2.5 Literature of Alloy Deposition References 3. Conductors, Current Flow, Electrode Potentials, and Definitions 3.1 Electrical Conductors 3.2 Passage of Current from a Metallic Conductor to an Electrolyte 3.3 Voltage 3.4 Definitions of Electrical Terms 3.5 Conventions Regarding Signs of Electrodes 3.6 Static Potentials 3.7 Synopsis of the Types of Alloy Plating Systems and the Six Principles of Alloy Deposition References 4. Practical Considerations Involved in the Electrodeposition of Alloys 4.1 Introduction 4.2 General Conditions for Electrodepositing Alloys 4.3 Role of Static Potentials in the Electrodeposition of Alloys 4.4 Role of Dynamic Potentials in the Electrodeposition of Alloys 4.5 Replenishment of the Metal Content of Alloy Plating Baths 4.6 Codeposition in Electrorefining References 5. Variation in the Composition of Electrodeposited Alloys with the Composition of the Bath 5.1 General Discussion: Classification, Definitions, Procedures, Principles 5.2 Examples of the Relation between the Composition of Electrodeposited Alloys and the Metal Ratio of the Bath 5.3 Examples of the Relation between the Composition of Electrodeposited Alloys and the Total Metal Content of the Bath 5.4 Relation between Composition of Electrodeposited Alloys and the Concentration of Complexing Agent in the Bath 5.5 Effect of pH of the Plating Bath on the Composition of the Deposit 5.6 Effect of Addition Agents on Composition of Electrodeposited Alloys 5.7 Effect of Indifferent Salts on the Composition of the Electrodeposited Alloy 5.8 Appendix: Special Topics Dealing with the Relation between the Metal Content of the Bath and the Composition of the Electrodeposited Alloy References 6. Effect of Operating Variables on the Composition of Electrodeposited Alloys 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Relation between Current Density and Composition of Electrodeposited Alloys 6.3 Effect of Temperature on Composition of Electrodeposited Alloys 6.4 Effect of Agitation of Bath or Rotation of Cathode on the Composition of Electrodeposited Alloys 6.5 Relation between Alloy Composition and Some Miscellaneous or Composite Factors Involved in Plating 6.6 Appendix: Experimental Arrangements for Studying Alloy Plating References 7. Structure of Electrodeposited Alloys 7.1 Phase Diagrams of Alloys 7.2 Microstructure of Electrodeposited Alloys 7.3 Structure of Electrodeposited Alloys as Revealed by X-Ray 7.4 Effect of Plating Conditions on Structure of Electrodeposited Alloys 7.5 Mechanism of Deposition on a Metallic Lattice 7.6 Relation between Crystal Structure of Metals and Their Ease of Codeposition 7.7 Effect of Heat Treatment on Phase Structure of Electrodeposited Alloys References 8. Properties of Electrodeposited Alloys 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Hardness 8.3 Mechanical Properties: Tensile Strength, Ductility, and Young's Modulus 8.4 Stress 8.5 Density 8.6 Electrical and Magnetic Properties 8.7 Surface Appearance of Electrodeposited Alloys 8.8 Heat Treatment of Alloys and Thermal Properties 8.9 Chemical Reactivity of Electrodeposited Alloys 8.10 Protective Value of Alloy Coatings 8.11 Solderability of Electrodeposited Alloys 8.12 Properties of Electrodeposited Alloys as Bearing Metals 8.13 Inclusion Codeposits 8.14 Cause of the Difference in the Properties of Electrodeposited and Metallurgical Alloys ReferencesPart II Theory 9. Theory of Electrodeposition of Alloys. General Considerations and Literature 9.1 Present Status 9.2 What Should a Theory of Alloy Deposition Cover 9.3 Literature Survey of Theory of Alloy Deposition 9.4 Outline of Theoretical Treatment of Alloy Deposition References 10. The Cathode Diffusion Layer and Its Role in the Electrodeposition of a Single Metal 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Diffusion Layer at Plane, Vertical Cathodes 10.3 Experimental Methods of Studying the Diffusion Layer 10.4 Equation for Material Balance at the Cathode in the Steady State References 11. The Role of the Cathode Diffusion Layer in the Electrodeposition of Alloys 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Equations of Material Balance and the Composition of Alloys 11.3 Experimental Verification of Equations of Material Balance in Alloy Deposition 11.4 Codeposition at the Limiting Current Density 11.5 Codeposition When Transference Is the Controlling Factor 11.6 Application of Diffusion Theory to Explain the Effects of Plating Variables on the Composition of Electrodeposited Alloys References 12. Role of Cathode Potentials in the Electrodeposition of Alloys 12.1 Comparison of the Roles of Diffusion and of Cathode Potential. Mechanism of the Preferential Deposition of the More Noble Metal 12.2 Relative Metallen Concentrations at the Cathode-Solution Interface 12.3 Cathode Potentials and Abnormal Alloy Deposition 12.4 Role of the Curves of Current Density vs. Cathode Potential in the Theory of Alloy Deposition 12.5 Overvoltage of Alloy Deposition 12.6 The Most NoblePotential at Which Codeposition Can Occur 12.7 Shift of Potential in the Codeposition of Metals That Form Solid Solutions or Compounds 12.8 Relation of the Composition of an Electrodeposited Alloy to the Deposition Potentials of the Alloy and of the Parent Metals 12.9 Composition of Alloys Deposited at Constant Cathode Potential 12.10 Relation Between Current Density-Potential Curves of Alloy Deposition and Phase Changes in the Deposit References 13. Some Theoretical Aspects of Complexing Agents and Addition Agents in Alloy Plating 13.1 Scope of Discussion 13.2 Discharge of Complex Metal Ions 13.3 Static Electrode Potentials of Metals in Cyanide Solutions 13.4 Relation between Diffusion Phenomena and the Effects of Complexing Agents 13.5 Mechanism of the Effect of Addition Agents on the Composition of Electrodeposited Alloys References Part III Practical Considerations and Specific Information on the Electrodeposition of Alloys Alloy Group A. Some Important Alloys of Copper and Silver 14. Electrodeposition of Brass 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Literature 14.3 Electrodeposition of Brass from Cyanide Baths 14.4 Electrodeposition of Brass from Noncyanide Plating Baths 14.5 Deposition of Brass Coatings without an External Source of Current 14.6 Structure of Electrodeposited Brass 14.7 Properties 14.8 Uses of Brass Plating 14.9 Analysis of Brass Deposits and Brass Plating Solutions References 15. Electrodeposition of Copper-Tin Alloys 15.1 General Survey 15.2 Literature 15.3 Electrodeposition of Copper-Tin Alloys from the Cyanide-Stannate Bath 15.4 Other Cyanide-Containing Baths for Depositing Copper-Tin Alloys 15.5 Noncyanide Baths for Depositing Copper-Tin Alloys 15.6 Structure of Electrodeposited Copper-Tin Alloys 15.7 Properties of Electrodeposited Copper-Tin Alloys 15.8 Protective Value of Copper-Tin Coatings 15.9 Uses of Electrodeposited Copper-Tin Alloys References 16. Electrodeposition of Cadmium-Copper Alloys 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Electrodeposition of the Alloys from Cyanide Baths 16.3 Deposition of Cadmium-Copper Alloys from Noncyanide Baths 16.4 Properties and Uses References 17. Electrodeposition of Alloys Containing Copper and the Metals of the Iron Group 17.1 Introduction 17.2 General Considerations concerning the Baths 17.3 Electrodeposition of Copper-Nickel Alloys 17.4 Electrodeposition of Copper-Iron Alloys 17.5 Electrodeposition of Copper-Cobalt Alloys 17.6 Electrodeposition of Copper-Iron-Nickel Alloys References 18. Electrodeposition of Brass- or Bronzelike Ternary Alloys 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Electrodeposition of Copper-Tin-Zinc Alloys 18.3 Electrodeposition of Copper-Cadmium-Zinc Alloys 18.4 Electrodeposition of Copper-Cadmium-Tin Alloys 18.5 Copper-Nickel-Zinc Alloys 18.6 Electrodeposition of Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy 18.7 Electrodeposition of Copper-Cobalt-Tin Alloy 18.8 Electrodeposition of Copper-Antimony-Zinc Alloys References 19. Electrodeposition of Copper-Silver Alloys and Some Miscellaneous Alloys of Silver 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Electrodeposition of Copper-Silver Alloys 19.3 Electrodeposition of Silver-Tin Alloys 19.4 Electrodeposition of Silver Alloys of the Iron-Group Metals 19.5 Codeposition of Silver with the Platinum Metals References 20. Electrodeposition of Copper-Lead and Silver-Lead Alloys 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Electrodeposition of Copper-Lead and Silver-Lead Alloys from Alkaline Baths 20.3 Electrodeposition of Copper- and Silver-Lead Alloys from Acid or Neutral Solutions 20.4 Structure and Properties of Electrodeposited Copper- and Silver-Lead Alloys References 21. Electrodeposition of Silver-Cadmium and Silver-Zinc Alloys 21.1 Introduction and Literature Survey 21.2 Electrodeposition of Silver-Cadmium Alloys 21.3 Electrodeposition of Silver-Zinc Alloys 21.4 Structure of Electrodeposited Silver-Cadmium and Silver-Zinc Alloys 21.5 Properties of Electrodeposited Silver-Cadmium Alloys 21.6 Uses of Electrodeposited Silver-Cadmium and Silver-Zinc Alloys 21.7 Electrodeposition of Silver-Zinc-Gold and Silver-Zinc-Palladium Alloys ReferencesAuthor Index Subject Index