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Dynamic Aspects of Cell Surface Organization Cell Surface Reviews
1st Edition - January 1, 1977
Editors: George Poste, Garth L. Nicolson eBook ISBN:
9 7 8 - 1 - 4 8 3 1 - 6 4 0 1 - 4
Cell Surface Reviews, Volume 3: Dynamic Aspects of Cell Surface Organization reviews the progress in the study of the dynamic nature of membrane organization. The book is…
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Cell Surface Reviews, Volume 3: Dynamic Aspects of Cell Surface Organization reviews the progress in the study of the dynamic nature of membrane organization. The book is comprised of 14 chapters that discuss the various areas of concerns relating to membrane dynamics. The coverage of the text includes techniques and methods employed in the analysis and manipulation of the various aspects of cell membranes, such as freeze-fracture techniques; manipulation of the lipid composition of cultured animal cells; and somatic genetic analysis. The book also talks about some of the traits and behaviors of membrane dynamics including shedding of tumor cell surface antigens; dynamics of antibody binding and complement interactions at the cell surface; and structure and function of surface immunoglobulin of lymphocytes. The text will be of great use to microbiologists, biochemists, and other researchers whose work requires a good understanding of the various aspects of cells. General Preface Contents of Previous and Forthcoming Volumes Preface List of Contributors 1 The Dynamics of Cell Membrane Organization 1. Introduction 1.1. Some Basic Principles 1.2. Some Basic Methodology 1.2.1. Physical Techniques 1.2.2. Biological Techniques 2. Dynamics of Cell Membrane Components 2.1. Lipid Motion 2.1.1. Lipid Viscosity 2.1.2. Lipid Lateral Motion 2.1.3. Lipid Perpendicular Motion 2.1.4. Lipid Phase Separation 2.2. Protein and Glycoprotein Motion 2.2.1. Lateral Mobility of Proteins and Glycoproteins 2.2.2. Ligand-Induced Redistribution of Cell Surface Components 2.2.3. Protein and Glycoprotein Turnover 3. Mechanisms of Receptor Control 3.1. Planar (Eis) Control 3.1.1. Planar or Lateral Associations 3.1.2. Domain Formation 3.2. Trans-Membrane Control 3.2.1. Peripheral Membrane Components 3.2.2. Membrane-Associated (Cytoskeletal) Components 4. Trans-Membrane Architecture 2 Freeze-Fracture Techniques and Applications to the Structural Analysis of the Mammalian Plasma Membrane 1. Introduction 2. Freeze-Fracture Technique 3. Interpretation of Freeze-Fracture Images 4. Freeze-Fracture Images of Plasma Membranes 4.1. The Erythrocyte 4.2. Other Cells 5. Intercellular Junctions 5.1. Symmetrical Junctions 5.1.1. Adherens Junctions 5.1.2. Occludens Junctions 5.1.3. Gap Junctions 220.127.116.11. Small Subunit Gap Junction 18.104.22.168. Large Subunit Gap Junctions 22.214.171.124. Gap Junction Formation And Degradation 5.2. Asymmetrical Junctions 6. Conclusions 3 Exchange of Phospholipids Between Membranes 1. Introduction 2. The Origin of the Hypothesis for Exchange Of Phospholipids Within the Cell 2.1. In Vivo Experiments 2.2. In Vitro Experiments 3. Exchange of Phospholipids Between Membranes 3.1. Identification of Phospholipid Exchange Processes 3.2. Distribution of Phospholipid Exchange Processes 3.3. Properties of Phospholipid Exchange Between Membranes 3.3.1. Phospholipid Exchange is Time- And Temperature-Dependent 3.3.2. Phospholipid Exchange Involves Intact Phospholipid Molecules 3.3.3. Phospholipid Exchange is Bidirectional 3.3.4. Phospholipid Exchange is Energy-Independent And Does Not Require Biologically Active Membranes 3.3.5. Phospholipid Exchange Involves a Major Proportion of the Phospholipid Pool 3.3.6. Phospholipid Exchange Does Not Involve All the Phospholipid Classes 3.3.7. Phospholipid Exchange Is Stimulated by the 105 000 G Supernatant 4. Phospholipid Exchange Involving Lipoproteins 4.1. Lipoprotein-Lipoprotein Exchange 4.2. Lipoproteins and Cellular Fractions 4.3. Chylomicrons and Serum Lipoproteins 4.4. Erythrocytes and Plasma Lipoproteins 4.5. Tissues and the External Medium 5. Involvement of Proteins in the Exchange of Phospholipids Between Membranes 5.1. Role of the Ph 5.1 Supernatant 5.1.1. Generalization of the Ph 5.1 Supernatant Stimulated Exchange 5.1.2. Which Phospholipids are Preferentially Transferred? 5.1.3. Evidence for the Protein Nature of the Active Fraction 5.2. Discovery of Phospholipid Exchange Proteins (Plep) 6. Phospholipid Exchange in Artificial (Model) Membranes 6.1. Phospholipid Exchange Between Liposomes and Cell Fractions 6.2. Exchange of Phospholipids Between Liposomes 7. Purification and Properties of Phospholipid Exchange Proteins 7.1. Purification 7.1.1. Phosphatidylcholine Exchange Protein From Beef Liver (Pc-Plep) 7.1.2. Plep From Beef Heart 7.1.3. Plep From Rat Intestine 7.1.4. Plep From Beef Brain (Pi-Plep) 7.1.5. Plep From Plant Cytosols 7.2. Common Properties of Phospholipid Exchange Proteins 8. Do Phospholipid Exchange Proteins Act as Phospholipid Carriers? 8.1. Studies with Phospholipid Monolayers 8.2. Binding Experiments 8.3. Net Transfer 9. Nature Of The Interactions Between Phospholipid Exchange Proteins and Bound Phospholipids 9.1. Hydrophobie Interactions 9.2. Electrostatic Interactions 10. Control of Phospholipid Exchange by Membrane Surface Charge and the Mode of Action of Phospholipid Exchange Proteins 10.1. Liposome-Liposome Interactions 10.2. Liposome-Mitochondria and Liposome-Microsome Interactions 10.3. Mode of Action of Plep 11. Membrane Asymmetry: Implications for Phospholipid Exchange 11.1. Natural Membranes 11.2. Model Membranes 12. The Physiological Significance of Phospholipid Exchange 13. Unanswered Questions 4 The Influence of Membrane Fluidity on the Activity of Membrane-Bound Enzymes 1. Introduction 2. Lipid Fluidity in Model and Biological Membranes 2.1. Structure and Formation of Liposomes 2.2. Lipid Fluidity and Phase Transitions in Liposomes 2.3. Effects of Cholesterol, Divalent Cations and Ph on Lipid Fluidity 2.4. Effects of Proteins on Lipid Fluidity 2.5. Lipid Fluidity in Biological Membranes 3. Lipid Fluidity and Membrane Enzymes 3.1. Lipid Dependence of Membrane Enzymes 3.2. Membrane Fluidity and Arrhenius Plots of Enzyme Activity 3.3. Alterations in Membrane Lipid Composition and Enzyme Activity 3.3.1. In Escherichia Colt 3.3.2. Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma 3.3.3. Yeast 3.3.4. Effects of Temperature Acclimation in Plants and Poikilotherms 3.3.5. Diet-Induced Alterations 3.4. Lipid Phase Separation and Enzyme Activity 3.5. Correlation of Arrhenius Plots of Enzyme Activity and Lipid Fluidity in Natural Membranes 3.5.1. Mitochondria 3.5.2. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum and Microsomal Enzymes 3.5.3. Plasma Membrane Enzymes 3.6. Enzyme Activity and Lipid Fluidity in Reconstituted Systems 3.7. Membrane Microenvironments And Lateral Translational Mobility 4. A Regulatory Role for Membrane Lipid Fluidity? 4.1. Alterations in Normal States 4.2. Alterations in Disease 5. Concluding Remarks 5 Manipulation of The Lipid Composition of Cultured Animal Cells 1. Introduction 2. Lipid Metabolism 3. Lipid Alterations 4. Some Observations and Generalizations 5. Conclusion 6 Glycolipids as Membrane Receptors Important in Growth Regulation and Cell-Cell Interactions 1. Introduction 2. Glycolipid Structure, Biosynthesis and Nomenclature 3. Glycolipids in Normal and Transformed Cells 3.1. Enzymatic Basis for Change in Glycolipid Pattern on Transformation 3.2. Subcellular Distribution of Glycolipids 3.3. Correlation Between Glycolipid Changes and Transformation 3.3.1. Generality of the Effect of Transformation on Glycolipid Pattern 3.3.2. Studies with Viral Mutants Temperature Sensitive for Transformation 3.3.3. Studies with Revenant Cell Lines 3.4. Molecular Basis of the Viral Effect on Glycolipid Synthesis 3.5. Effects of Exogenous Glycolipids on Cell Growth 4. Variations in Glycolipid Pattern in Normal Cells 4.1. Growth Dependent Variation 4.1.1. Cell Density-Dependent Glycolipids 4.1.2. Kinetics of the Change in Glycolipid Pattern as Related to Cell Density 4.2. Glycolipid Metabolism as a Function of Cell Cycle 4.3. Possible Mechanisms to Explain Density-Dependent Glycolipids 4.3.1. Cell Cycle Effects 4.3.2. Synthesis of Density-Dependent Glycolipids by Transglycosylation 4.3.3. Enzyme Induction 5. Exposure Of Glycolipids at the Cell Surface 5.1. In Cultured Cells 5.2. Possible Mechanisms to Explain Alterations In Exposure of Glycolipids 6. Correlation Between Altered Glycolipid Pattern and Malignancy 7. Glycolipids as Cell Surface Receptors 7.1. Studies with Cholera Toxin 7.1.1. Binding Specificity 7.1.2. Cholera Toxin: Interaction with Adenyl Cyclase in Intact Cells 7.1.3. Cholera Toxin: Interaction with Adenyl Cyclase in Isolated Membranes 7.2. Protein-Glycolipid Interactions in Other Systems 7.3. Glycolipids as Receptor for Interferon 7.4. Possible Role of Glycolipids as Receptors for Molecules Involved in Growth Regulation 7.5. Glycolipids as Cell Surface Receptors Involved in Intercellular Recognition 7 Cell Surface Proteins: Changes During Cell Growth and Malignant Transformation 1. Introduction 2. The Erythrocyte Membrane as a Model for the Structure of Mammalian Cell Surface Membranes 2.1. Lipids 2.2. Proteins 2.3. Carbohydrates 3. Methods for Studying Cell Surface Proteins 3.1. Isolation of Plasma Membranes 3.2. Isolation of Membrane Proteins 3.3. Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis 3.4. Specific Labeling of the Outer Surface of the Plasma Membrane 3.4.1. Labeling of Cell Surface Carbohydrates 126.96.36.199. The Galactose Oxidase Method for Labeling Galactose and Jv-Acetyl Galactosamine 188.8.131.52. The Periodate-[3h]Nabh4 Method for Labeling Sialic Acids 184.108.40.206. The Cytidine Monophosphate (Cmp)-[14c]Sialic Acid Method for Labeling Cell Surface Glycoproteins 3.4.2. Labeling of the Polypeptide Portion of Cell Surface Glycoproteins 220.127.116.11. The Lactoperoxidase Method for Labeling Cell Surface Proteins 18.104.22.168. The Pyridoxal Phosphate-[3h]Nabh4 Method for Labeling Cell Surface Proteins 22.214.171.124. The [35s]Formyl Methionyl Sulfone Methyl Phosphate Method for Labeling Cell Surface Proteins 126.96.36.199. The [3h]/[14c]Isothionyl Acetimidate Method for Labeling Cell Surface Proteins 188.8.131.52. Photochemical Labeling of Cell Surface Proteins 184.108.40.206. Labeling of Cell Surface Proteins Using Transglutaminase 3.5. Chemical Analysis of Membranes 3.5.1. Proteins 3.5.2. Carbohydrates 3.6. Fluorescence Microscopy and Electron Microscopy 4. Studies Of Surface Glycoproteins of Normal and Transformed Cells 4.1. External Labeling of Normal and Malignant Cells 4.1.1. Fibronectin 4.1.2. Other Cell Surface Proteins 4.2. Cell Surface Proteins and Regulation of Cell Growth 4.3. Cell Surface Antigens of Normal and Transformed Cells 4.4. Interaction of Normal and Transformed Cells with Lectins: Insights Into Plasma Membrane Glycoprotein Organization 4.5. Glycopeptides and Oligosaccharides From the Surface of Normal and Transformed Cells 4.6. Transport of Glucose and Glucose Analogs in Normal and Malignant Cells 4.7. Cell Surface Recognition and Cellular Adhesion 8 Shedding of Tumor Cell Surface Antigens 1. Introduction 2. Nature of Tumor Antigens and Molecular Expression at The Cell Surface 3. Tumor Antigen Shedding in Vitro 3.1. Background Considerations 3.2. Detection of Antigens Shed in Vitro 3.3. Induction of Release Of Cell Surface Antigens by Immune Mechanisms 4. Detection of Antigens Shed In Vivo 4.1. Identification of Tumor-Associated Antigens in Body Fluids 4.2. Blocking Factors 4.3. Inhibitory Factors 5. Immunobiological Effects of Circulating Antigens 5.1. Correlation of Serum Factors With Tumor Growth 5.2. Immune Responses to Circulating Tumor Antigens in the Tumor Host 6. Conclusion 9 Expression of Cell Surface Antigens on Cultured Tumor Cells 1. Introduction 2. Cell Surface Antigens in Non-Synchronized Cultures 2.1. Variations in Cell Surface Antigen Expression During a Single Growth Cycle 2.2. Cell Cycle Kinetics During a Single Growth Cycle 3. Cell Surface Antigens in Synchronized Cultures 3.1. Variations in Cell Surface Antigen Expression During the Cell Cycle 3.2. Possible Mechanisms of Cell Cycle-Dependent Antigen Expression 4. Macromolecular Synthesis and the Expression of Cell Surface Antigens 5. Culture- And Transformation-Induced Alterations of Cell Surface Antigen Expression 5.1. Alterations of Cell Surface Antigen Expression in Explanted Cells 5.2. Reversion of Culture-Induced Antigenic Changes by Retransplantation of Cultured Cells Into Syngeneic Hosts 5.3. Alterations of Cell Surface Antigen Expression in Transformed Cells 6. Conclusions 10 Somatic Genetic Analysis of the Surface Antigens of Murine Lymphoid Tumors 1. Rationale for the Somatic Analysis of Surface Antigens 2. Characteristics of Murine Lymphoid Cell Surface Antigens Which Have Been Used in Somatic Genetic Studies 2.1. H-2 2.2. Tl 2.3. Thy-1 3. Surface Antigen Variation in Tumor Cell Populations 3.1. Selection of Tumor Cell Surface Antigen Variants 3.1.1. Selection of H-2 Antigen Variants in Vivo 3.1.2. Selection of H-2 And Hl-A Variants in Vitro 3.1.3. Selection of Variants for Thy-1 And Tl From Homozygous Tumor Cells 3.2. Are Surface Antigen Variants of Tumor Cells Mutants? 4. Genetic Behavior of Antigen Loss Variants 4.1. Antigen Loss Variants Derived From Heterozygous Tumors 4.2. Antigen Loss Variants Derived From Homozygous Tumors 4.3. Dominant "Suppression" Of Antigen Expression 5. Future Prospects 5.1. Analysis of Differentiation Alloantigens 5.2. Tumor-Associated Antigens 11 Dynamics of Antibody Binding and Complement Interactions at the Cell Surface 1. Introduction 2. Cell Surface Molecules as Antibody-Binding Structures 2.1. Accessibility 2.2. Valence 2.3. Number of Antigenic Sites Per Cell and Antigenic Density 2.4. Distribution 3. The Precipitin Reaction at the Cell Surface 3.1. General Considerations of Antibody Structure and its Implications for Lattice Formation 3.1.1. Multivalent Interaction and Affinity 3.1.2. Span and Flexibility 3.2. Lattice Formation by a Single Layer of Antibody 3.2.1. Model Systems 3.2.2. Experimental Systems 3.3. Lattice Formation by a Double-Layer of Antibody 3.3.1. Model Systems 3.3.2. Experimental Systems 4. Prozone Effects 4.1. Observations of Prozone Effect 4.2. Studies of the Mechanism 5. Behaviour And Fate of Antibody Following Binding to the Cell Surface 5.1. Dissociation of Antibodies From Antigenic Determinants 5.2. Release of Antigen-Antibody Complexes From the Cell Surface 5.2.1. Demonstration of Release and its Differentiation From Dissociation 5.2.2. Metabolic Dependence of Antibody Release 5.2.3. Kinetics of Release of Antibodies From Cells 5.3. Redistribution of Plasma Membrane Components Within the Plane of the Membrane 5.3.1. Characteristics of Ligand-Induced Redistribution of Surface Antigens 5.3.2. Capping is Influenced by the Kind of Antigen and the Cell Type 5.4. Endocytosis of Ligand-Receptor Complexes 5.5. Mechanisms for the Control of Distribution and Mobility Of Cell Surface Components And Bound Ligands 5.6. Factors Determining The Behaviour And Fate Of Membrane-Bound Antibodies 5.6.1. The Ligand 5.6.2. The Cell 6. The Interaction Of Complement with Antibodies at the Cell Surface 6.1. Factors Influencing the Susceptibility of Target Cells to Lysis by Antibodies and Complement 6.2. Cell Cycle-Dependent Variation in Cellular Susceptibility to Lysis by Antibodies and Complement 6.3. Influence of the Mobility of Membrane Components on Cellular Susceptibility to Lysis by Antibodies and Complement 6.4. Complement Modulates the Binding of Antibodies and Immune Complexes to Cells 12 Mitogen Stimulation of B Lymphocytes. A Mitogen Receptor Complex Which Influences Reactions Leading to Proliferation and Differentiation 1. Introduction 2. Lymphocyte Heterogeneity 3. The Small B Lymphocyte 4. The Mitogens 5. The Induction of B Lymphocytes By Mitogens 6. Proliferation and Maturation of B Lymphocytes 7. The Role of Surface Membrane-Bound IG in the Induction of B Cells to Growth and Differentiation 8. Mitogen-Receptors on B Cells 13 Structure and Function of Surface Immunoglobulin of Lymphocytes 2. Detection of Surface IG 3. Class and Antigen Specificityof IG 3.1. Class 3.2. Antibody Specificity 3.3. Allelic Exclusion 4. Topography and Redistribution 5. Synthesis and Dynamics of Surface IG 6. Summary 14 Distribution and Mobility ff Plasma Membrane Components on Lymphocytes 1. Introduction 2. General Characteristics of Redistribution of Lymphocyte Surface Components 2.1. Lymphocyte Surface Components? 2.2. Experimental Methods 2.3. Early Distribution Studies of Lymphocyte Surface Components 2.4. Basic Redistribution Phenomena 3. Normal Distribution of Membrane Components 4. Metabolically Independent Redistribution: Patching 5. Metabolically Dependent Redistribution: Capping 5.1. Dependence on Cell Metabolism 5.2. Dependence on Crosslinking 5.3. Kinetics of Capping 5.4. Movement of Surface Molecules During Capping 5.4.1. The Polar Movement 5.4.2. Independence of Membrane Components 5.4.3. Mechanism of Segregation of Membrane Proteins 5.5. Cell Movement, Cell Morphology and Capping 5.5.1. Stimulation of Motility and Changes of Cell Shape 5.5.2. Relationship Between Cell Movement and Capping 5.5.3. Capping on Cells Bound to a Solid Substrate 5.6. Role of Intracellular Structures in Capping 5.6.1. Structural Cellular Components (Microfilaments, Microtubules) 5.6.2. Evidence for a Role of Microfilaments 5.6.3. Evidence For a Role of Microtubules 5.6.4. Mechanisms of Membrane-Cytoplasm Interaction 5.7. Biological Significance of Capping 6. Fate Of Labelled Material 6.1. Pinocytosis 6.2. Shedding 6.3. Antigenic Modulation 6.4. Resynthesis of Surface Components (Recovery From Modulation) 7. Concluding Remarks Subject Index
Published: January 1, 1977
eBook ISBN: 9781483164014