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Cells and Tissues
An Introduction to Histology and Cell Biology
1st Edition - January 28, 1983
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Cells and Tissues: An Introduction to Histology and Cell Biology begins by explaining why histology should be studied. Some chapters follow on the techniques for studying cells… Read more
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Cells and Tissues: An Introduction to Histology and Cell Biology begins by explaining why histology should be studied. Some chapters follow on the techniques for studying cells and tissues, the anatomy of the cell, the epithelia, the connective tissues, and the blood. This book also covers topics on the immunity against foreign material; contractility, specifically at how it is brought about and at how the system changes in a stationary cell; and harnessing of contraction to produce movement. This text also looks into the communication systems within cells, the life and death of cells, and the histological sections of small intestine. The responses of the body to injury in the processes of inflammation and repair are also explored. This book will be useful to students starting in histology, though it does assume some elementary knowledge of biochemistry and of the structure of the mammalian body.
PrefaceChapter 1 Why Study Histology? Further ReadingChapter 2 The Techniques Available Introduction Dimensions The Light Microscope The Design of the Microscope Magnification and Resolution The Use of the Light Microscope The Preparation of Tissues for Microscopy Fixation, Embedding and Sectioning Staining the Section The Limitations of Conventional Techniques of Microscopy The Tissue is Dead The Stains are Non-Specific Few Chemicals Survive the Preparative Techniques A Section is Only Two-Dimensional The Section is Static and Unchanging The Resolution is Limited Collecting Information is Difficult Back to Earth Further ReadingChapter 3 The Anatomy of the Cell Introduction The Cell Membrane Freeze Fracture The Glycocalyx The Nucleus The Nuclear Membrane Chromatin The Cytoplasm Energy Production Synthetic Activity Absorption The Cell Skeleton Storage within the Cell Linking Cell Structure to Function The Fibroblast The Macrophage The Unknown Cell Further Reading References Chapter 4 Epithelia: The Body's Limits Introduction Definitions Features Common to All Epithelia The Recognition of Epithelia The Organization of Glands Contacts between Epithelial Cells The Junctional Complex The Gap Junction The Classification of Epithelia A Look at Particular Epithelia The Small Intestine The Pancreas The Bronchus The Urinary Bladder The Oesophagus The Skin Summary Further Reading References Chapter 5 Connective Tissue: The Spaces In Between Introduction The Extracellular Fluid Renewal of the Extracellular Fluid Removal of Proteins from the Extracellular Fluid The Cells of Connective Tissue Fibroblasts Macrophages Fat Cells Mast Cells Extracellular Materials of Connective Tissue Collagen Fibres Elastic Fibres Glycosaminoglycans Summary Further ReadingChapter 6 How to Look at a Section Introduction The Sequence of Observations Examining a Section Structure and Function in Skin The Epidermis The Dermis Summary of the Functions of Skin Review of Progress Further Reading Chapter 7 The Blood Introduction Blood Plasma The Cells of the Blood Erythrocytes Polymorphonuclear Leucocytes Lymphocytes Monocytes Platelets The Blood Summarized Exchange between Blood and Tissues Capillaries Sinusoids Exchanging Vessels and Connective Tissue The Effects of Damage to Endothelial Cells Further Reading Chapter 8 Immunity against Foreign Material Introduction The Removal of Proteins from the Extracellular Space The Transport of Lymph The Filtering of the Lymph The Fate of Foreign Proteins in the Tissues Lymphocytes The Immune Responses The Secondary Response to Soluble Antigens The Secondary Response to Cell-Bound Antigens The Primary Immune Response Lymphocytes and Lymphoid Tissue The Life Histories of Lymphocytes The Organization of Lymphoid Tissue The Immune System throughout Life Further ReadingChapter 9 Contraction and Muscle Introduction The Major Proteins of Contraction Movement in Non-Muscle Cells Patterns of Movement The Varying Patterns of Actin A Moving Cell Becomes Stationary Muscle Cells Smooth Muscle The Organization of Smooth Muscle The Functional Characteristics of Smooth Muscle The Recognition of Smooth Muscle Striated Muscle The Structure of a Single Sarcomere The Sarcoplasmic Reticulum The Functional Characteristics of Striated Muscle The Recognition of Striated Muscle Cardiac Muscle The Intercalated Disc The Functional Characteristics of Cardiac Muscle The Recognition of Cardiac Muscle The Biological Importance of Muscle Contraction Further Reading Chapter 10 Harnessing Contraction to Produce Movement Introduction Tendons Cartilage The Matrix of Cartilage The Cells of Cartilage The Recognition of Varieties of Cartilage Ageing and Repair in Cartilage Bone The Extracellular Matrix of Bone The Cells of Bone The Micro-Architecture of Bone The Periosteum Effects of Movements on Surrounding Structures Fat Fluid-Filled Sacs Joints Joints with Little or no Movement Freely Movable Joints Summary Further Reading Chapter 11 A Look at Tubes Introduction General Observations about the Tube Muscle Coat Present What Other Components Accompany Muscle in the Wall of the Tube? The Structure of the Wall of a Tube That Contains Muscle Fibres The Distribution of Vessels and Nerves to Tubes Tubes Modified to Form Storage Chambers Tubes Lacking a Muscle Coat Structure and Function in Tubes Chapter 12 Communication Systems Introduction Local Communications between Cells Local Diffusion of Signals Cell Contacts Assisted Diffusion of Signaling Molecules — Hormones The Economics of Hormonal Signaling Cells That Produce Hormones Target Cells and Their Responses The Characteristics of Hormonal Signaling Signaling by Nerves The Cell Membrane of the Neurone Nerve Impulses Release of Transmitter at a Nerve Terminal Electrical Events at the Nerve Cell Body The Structure of a Nerve Cell The Cell Body Theaxon The Organization of Nervous Tissue The Supporting Cells of the Central Nervous System The Epithelial Nature of Nervous Tissue Peripheral Nerves Review of Communication by Means of Nerves Further Reading References Chapter 13 The Life and Death of Cells Introduction Mitosis The Cell Cycle in Intestinal Epithelium Labeling Methods Phases of the Cell Cycle The Fate of Labeled Cells Patterns of Cell Renewal Continually Dividing Populations Cells That Divide in Response to Cell Loss Cells That Never Divide The Regulation of Cell Division The Male and Female Germ Cells Meiosis Male Germ Cells Female Germ Cells Summary Further Reading References Chapter 14 The Small Intestine Introduction Initial Observations on Sections of Small Intestine The Region inside the Muscle Layer The Mucosa The Muscularis Mucosae and Submucosa The Muscle Layer and the Region outside it The Muscularis Externa The Serosa Summary of Function and Structure of the Jejunum Variations in Structure down the Length of the Small Intestine The Duodenum The Ileum Summary Further Reading Chapter 15 Interpreting Abnormal Structure Introduction Inflammation Mobilization of Defenses into the Injured Area Restriction of Damage and Removal of the Cause Repairing the Damage Chronic Inflammation Acute Bronchopneumonia Cancer Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Skin The Spread of Cancer by Metastasis Summary Further Reading ReferencesChapter 16 What Have We Achieved? Recurring Patterns Patterns and Learning NotesIndex