Bureaucratic Failure and Public Expenditure was written to address the question: Once a law is passed, under what conditions will the bureaucracy fail to give the political leaders exactly what they ordered? The book deals explicitly with the federal government of the United States. Certain aspects of the theory could be applied to other large organizations or to other governments and times, but these are separate task. The book is organized into three parts. Part I is based on a literature survey that roams widely through economics, political science, sociology, public administration, and various related bodies of knowledge. Although much of this was unfamiliar terrain for an economist, the route was defined by the objective of identifying the conditions predisposing to failure. Part II contains 11 brief case studies that are based on reports by the United States General Accounting Office. Relying on this source permitted coverage of a broad selection of the nonmilitary activities of the government. Part III reexamines the hypotheses developed from the literature in the light of the cases and other studies of implementation. The final chapter consists of the author’s reflections on the implications of bureaucratic failure.