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Beam Processing Technologies
1st Edition - May 21, 1989
Editors: Norman G. Einspruch, S. S. Cohen, Raj N. Singh
9 7 8 - 1 - 4 8 3 2 - 1 7 8 5 - 7
Beam Processing Technologies is a collection of papers that deals with the miniaturization of devices that will be faster, consume less power, and cost less per operation or… Read more
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Beam Processing Technologies is a collection of papers that deals with the miniaturization of devices that will be faster, consume less power, and cost less per operation or fabrication. One paper discusses metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuit technology including the operation of devices whose lateral and vertical dimensions are scaled down. If the devices' silicon doping profiles are increased by the same scale factor, they can operate on lower voltages and currents, with the same performance. Another paper describes laser beam processing and wafer-scale integration as techniques to increase the number of devices on a silicon chip. Electron beam technologies can be used in many fabrication processes such as in microlithography, selective oxidation, doping, metrology. Ion beam applications depend on the presence of the ion introduced into the device (e.g. implantation doping), on pseudoelastic collisions (e.g. physical sputtering or crystal damage), and on inelastic scattering (e.g. polymer resist exposure). Silicon molecular beam epitaxy (SiMBE) can also grow high-quality layers at low temperature, particularly concerning germanium, especially as reagrds the growth system design and utilization of n- and p-type doping. Chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) is another epitaxial growth technique that can surpass MBE and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD). The collection is suitable chemical engineers, industrial physicists, and researchers whose work involve micro-fabrication and development of integrated circuits.
List of ContributorsPrefaceChapter 1 Trends in MOS Integrated Circuit Technology I. Historical Perspective II. Device Scaling III. Trends in FET Design IV. Isolation V. Lithography VI. Ion Implantation VII. Dielectrics VIII. Interconnect IX. Contacts X. Reliability XI. BiCMOS XII. Memory Technology XIII. The Future ReferencesChapter 2 Laser Beam Processing and Wafer-Scale Integration I. Introduction II. Theoretical Considerations III. Results for the LIDL Process IV. Laser Beam Processing in IC Repair and Customization ReferencesChapter 3 Electron Beam Processing I. Introduction II. Interaction of Electrons with Matter III. Components for Electron Beam Machines IV. Multibeam E-Beam Machines V. Applications Involving Low Electron Energies VI. Chemical Processing ReferencesChapter 4 Ion Beam Techniques and Applications I. Introduction II. Sources for Broad-Area Ion Beams III. Sources for Submicrometer Beams IV. Parallel Processing with Broad-Area Beams V. Serial Processing with Finely Focused Beams VI. Summary ReferencesChapter 5 Silicon Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Capabilities and Trends I. Introduction II. Si MBE Technology III. Growth Mechanisms and Surface Preparation IV. Silicon Doping V. Polycrystalline Silicon VI. Application of Si MBE VII. Conclusion ReferencesChapter 6 Chemical Beam Epitaxy I. Introduction II. CBE System Design III. Substrate Preparation for Growth IV. Growth Kinetics of CBE V. Quality of Epilayers VI. Growth of Epilayers Using Group Alkyls VII. GaInAs/InP and GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Wells and Superlattices VIII. Doping Control IX. Device Applications X. Concluding Remarks ReferencesChapter 7 Ion Implantation for VLSI I. Introduction II. Commençai Ion Implanters III. Ion Beam Production and Acceleration IV. Implantation Physics V. Problems Associated with Ion Implantation VI. Endstation Design VII. Ion Implanter System Design ReferencesChapter 8 Incoherent Radiation and Its Applications (Visible, UV, X rays) I. Introduction II. Pattern Replication III. Optical Imaging IV. Photolithographic Tools V. Deep-UV Lithography VI. X-ray Lithography VII. Thermal Processing with Incoherent Radiation VIII. Conclusion ReferencesChapter 9 Electron Beam Testing: An Outline of Techniques I. Introduction II. Introduction to the Scanning Electron Microscope III. Qualitative Voltage Contrast IV. Voltage Contrast Linearization for Potential Measurements V. Estimate of Minimum Measurable Voltage VI. Observation of Fast Voltage Waveforms and Dynamic Voltage Distributions Using a Pulsed Beam Probe VII. Electron Beam Pulsing in the Electron-Optical Column VIII. Stroboscopic and Sampling Mode Operation IX. Other Modes with Synchronous and Asynchronous Pulsed Beams X. Summary ReferencesIndex