An Introduction to Probability and Mathematical Statistics provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of probability and mathematical statistics. This book covers a variety of topics, including random variables, probability distributions, discrete distributions, and point estimation. Organized into 13 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the definition of function. This text then examines the notion of conditional or relative probability. Other chapters consider Cochran's theorem, which is of extreme importance in that part of statistical inference known as analysis of variance. This book discusses as well the fundamental principles of testing statistical hypotheses by providing the reader with an idea of the basic problem and its relation to practice. The final chapter deals with the problem of estimation and the Neyman theory of confidence intervals. This book is a valuable resource for undergraduate university students who are majoring in mathematics. Students who are majoring in physics and who are inclined toward abstract mathematics will also find this book useful.